Nobel Laureates in Chemistry


1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Netherlands)
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
1902
Emil H. Fischer (Germany)
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
1903
Svante A. Arrhenius (Sweden)
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"
1904
Sir William Ramsay (United Kingdom)
"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"
1905
Adolf von Baeyer (Germany)
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
1906
Henri Moissan (France)
"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"
1907
Eduard Buchner (Germany)
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cellfree fermentation"
1908
Sir Ernest Rutherford (United Kingdom)
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
1909
Wilhelm Ostwald (Germany)
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
1910
Otto Wallach (Germany)
"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"
1911
Marie Curie (France, Poland)
"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"
1912
Victor Grignard (France)
"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"
Paul Sabatier (France)
"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"
1913
Alfred Werner (Switzerland)
"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"
1914
Theodore W. Richards (USA)
"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"
1915
Richard Willstätter (Germany)
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"
1916
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1917
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1918
Fritz Haber (Germany)
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"
1919
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1920
Walther H. Nernst (Germany)
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"
1921
Frederick Soddy (United Kingdom)
"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"
1922
Francis W. Aston (United Kingdom)
"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"
1923
Fritz Pregl (Austria)
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"
1924
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1925
Richard A. Zsigmondy (Germany, Austria)
"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"
1926
Theodor Svedberg (Sweden)
"for his work on disperse systems"
1927
Heinrich O. Wieland (Germany)
"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"
1928
Adolf Windaus (Germany)
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"
1929
Hans von Euler-Chelpin (Sweden, Germany,)
Arthur Harden (United Kingdom)
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
1930
Hans Fischer (Germany)
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"
1931
Friedrich Bergius (Germany)
Carl Bosch (Germany)
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"
1932
Irving Langmuir (USA)
"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"
1933
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1934
Harold C. Urey (USA)
"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen" (deuterium)
1935
Frédéric Joliot (France)
Irène Joliot-Curie (France)
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements" (artificial radioactivity)
1936
Peter J. W. Debye (Germany, Netherlands)
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
1937
Sir Walter N. Haworth (United Kingdom)
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
Paul Karrer (Switzerland)
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938
Richard Kuhn (Germany)
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"
1939
Adolf F. J. Butenandt (Germany)
"for his work on sex hormones"
Leopold Ruzicka (Switzerland)
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1940
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1941
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1942
- The Nobel Prize for Chemistry Was Not Awarded
1943
George de Hevesy (Hungary)
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"
1944
Otto Hahn (Germany)
"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"
1945
Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland)
"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"
1946
John H. Northrop (USA)
Wendell M. Stanley (USA)
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
James B. Sumner (USA)
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
1947
Sir Robert Robinson (United Kingdom)
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
1948
Arne W. K. Tiselius (Sweden)
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"
1949
William F. Giauque (USA)
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
1950
Kurt Alder (Germany)
Otto P. H. Diels (Germany)
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"
1951
Edwin M. McMillan (USA)
Glenn Th. Seaborg (USA)
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"
1952
Archer J. P. Martin (United Kingdom)
Richard L. M. Synge (United Kingdom)
"for their invention of partition chromatography"
1953
Hermann Staudinger (Germany)
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
1954
Linus Carl Pauling (USA)
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances" (molecular structure of proteins)
1955
Vincent du Vigneaud (USA)
"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"
1956
Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood (United Kingdom)
Nikolai N. Semjonow (Soviet Union)
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
1957
Sir Alexander R. Todd (United Kingdom)
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
1958
Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom)
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"
1959
Jaroslav Heyrovský (Czechoslovakia)
"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
1960
Willard F. Libby (USA)
"for his method to use carbo 14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science" (radiocarbon dating)
1961
Melvin Calvin (USA)
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" (photosynthesis)
1962
John Cowdery Kendrew (United Kingdom) Max Ferdinand Perutz (United Kingdom)
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
1963
Giulio Natta (Italy)
Karl Ziegler (Germany)
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"
1964
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (United Kingdom)
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"
1965
Robert Burns Woodward (USA)
"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"
1966
Robert S. Mulliken (USA)
"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"
1967
Manfred Eigen (Germany)
George Porter (United Kingdom)
Ronald G. W. Norrish (United Kingdom)
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"
1968
Lars Onsager (USA, Norway)
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"
1969
Odd Hassel (Norway)
Derek H. Barton (United Kingdom)
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"
1970
Luis F. Leloir (Argentina)
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
1971
Gerhard Herzberg (Canada)
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic stucture and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals" (molecular spectroscopy)
1972
Christian B. Anfinsen (USA)
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active confirmation"
Stanford Moore (USA)
William H. Stein (USA)
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
1973
Ernst Otto Fischer (Germany)
Geoffrey Wilkinson (United Kingdom)
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"
1974
Paul J. Flory (USA)
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"
1975
John W. Cornforth (United Kingdom)
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"
Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland, Yugoslavia)
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"
1976
William N. Lipscomb (USA)
"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"
1977
Ilya Prigogine (Belgium)
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"
1978
Peter D. Mitchell (United Kingdom
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"
1979
Georg Wittig (Germany)
Herbert C. Brown (USA)
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"
1980
Paul Berg (USA)
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" (technology of gene surgery)
Walter Gilbert (USA)
Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom)
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
1981
Kenichi Fukui (Japan)
Roald Hoffmann (USA)
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions" (frontier orbital theory)
1982
Aaron Klug (United Kingdom)
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes"
1983
Henry Taube (Canada)
"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"
1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA)
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
1985
Herbert A. Hauptman (USA)
Jerome Karle (USA)
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
1986
John C. Polanyi (Canada)
Dudley R. Herschbach (USA)
Yuan Tseh Lee (USA)
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
1987
Donald J. Cram (USA)
Charles J. Pedersen (USA)
Jean-Marie Lehn (France)
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
1988
Johann Deisenhofer (Germany)
Robert Huber (Germany)
Hartmut Michel (Germany)
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
1989
Sidney Altman (Canada)
Thomas Robert Cech (USA)
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
1990
Elias James Corey (USA)
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis" (retrosynthetic analysis)
1991
Richard Robert Ernst (Switzerland)
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"
1992
Rudolph A. Marcus (USA)
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
1993
Kary Banks Mullis (USA)
"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"
Michael Smith (Canada)
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleiotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
1994
George A. Olah (USA)
" for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"
1995
Paul Crutzen (Netherlands)
Mario Molina (Mexico)
Frank Sherwood Rowland (USA)
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"