Original manuscript owned by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.


Narrative, by James Clyman

Nappa April 17, 1871

"According to promis I will now attempt to give you a short detail of life and incidents of my trip in & through the Rockey Mountains in the years 1824-25, 26, 27, 28 and a portion of 1829

"Haveing been imployed in Public Surveys in the state of Illinois through the winter of 1823 and the early part of 24 I came to St Louis about the first of February to ricieve pay for past services and rimaining there Some days I heard a report that general William H Ashly was engageing men for a Trip to the mouth of the Yellow Stone river    I made enquiry as to what was the object but found no person who seemed to possess the desired information   finding whare Ashleys dwelling was I called on him the same evening  Several Gentlemen being present he invited me to call again on a certain evening which I did  he then gave a lenthy acount of game found in that Region  Deer, elk, Bear and Buffalo but to crown all immence Quantities of Beaver whose skins ware verry valuable selling from $5 to 8$ per pound at that time in St Louis and the men he wished to engage ware to huters trappers and traders for furs and peltrees  my curiosity now being satisfied St Louis being a fine place for Spending money I did not leave immediately  not having spent all my funds I loitered about without (without) employment

"Haveing fomed a Slight acquaintance with Mr Ashley we occasionly passed each other on the streets  at length one day Meeting him he told me he had been looking for me a few days back and enquiredd as to my employment I informed him that I was entirely unemployed  he said he wished then that I would assist him ingageing men t for his Rockey mountain epedition and he wished me to call at his housse in the evening  which I accordingly did getting instrutions as to whare I would most probably find men willing to engage which found in grog Shops and other sinks of degredation  he rented a house & furnished it with provisions Bread from to Bakers -- pork plenty, which the men had to cook for themselves

"On the 8th of March 1824 all things ready we shoved off from the shore fired a swivel which was answered by a Shout from the shore which we returned with a will and porceed up stream under sail

"A discription of our crew I cannt give but Fallstafs Battallion was genteel in comparison    I think we had about (70) seventy all told    Two Keel Boats with crews of French some St Louis gumboes as they were called

"We proceeded slowly up the Misouri River under sail wen winds ware favourable and towline when not    Towing or what was then calld cordell is a slow and tedious method of assending swift waters  It is done by the men walking on the shore and hawling the Boat by a long cord  Nothing of importance came under view for some months except loosing men who left us from time to time & engaging a few new men of a much better appearance than those we lost  The Missourie is a monotinous crooked stream with large cottonwood forest trees on one side and small young groth on the other with a bare Sand Barr intervening  I will state one circumstance only which will show something of the character of Missourie Boats men

"The winds are occasionally very strong and when head winds prevail we ware forced to lay by  this circumstanc happend once before we left the Settlements  the men went out gunning and that night came in with plenty of game Eggs Fowls Turkeys and what not Haveing a fire on shore they dressed cooked and eat untill midnight being care full to burn all the fragments    the wind still Blowing in the morning several Neighbours came in hunting for poultry    liberty was given to search the boats but they found nothing and left  the wind abateing somewhat the cord was got out and pulling around a bend the wind became a farir sailing breeze and wae ordred unfurled when out droped pigs and poultry in abundance

"A man was ordred to Jump in the skiff and pick up the pigs and poultry

"Ariveing at Council Bluffs we mde several exchanges (8) eight or Ten of our men enlisting and 2 or 3 of the Soldier whose was nearly expired engageing with us    The officers being verry liberal furnished us with a Quantity of vegetables    here we leave the last appearance of civilization and fully Indian country  game becomeing more plenty we furnished ourselvs with meat daily

"But I pass on to the arickaree villages whare we met with our defeat  on ariveing in sight of the villages the barr in front was lined with squaws packing up water thinking to have to stand a siege

"For a better understanding it is necessay that I state that the Missourie fur company have established a small trading house some (60) or (80) miles below the arrickree villages the winter previous to our assent and the arrickarees haveing taken some Sioux squaws prisoners previously one of these Squaws got away from them and made for this trading post and they persuing come near overtaking her in sight of the post    the men in the house ran out and fired on the Pesueing arrickarees killing (2) others so that Rees considered war was fully declared betwen them and the whites  But genl. Asley thought he could make them understand that his was not resposable for Injuries done by the Missourie fur company But the Rees could not make the distiction    they however agreed to recieve  pay for thier loss but the general would make them a present but would not pay the Misourie fur companies damages

"After one days talk they agreed to open trade on the sand bar in front of the village but the onley article of Trade they wantd was ammunition  For feare of a difficulty, the boats ware kept at anchor in the streame, and the skiffs were used for communications Betteen the boats and the shore. we obtained twenty horses in three dys trading, but in doing this we gave them a fine supply of Powder and ball which on fourth day wee found out to Sorrow

"In the night of the third day Several of our men without permition went and remained in the village amongst them our Interperter Mr Rose    about midnight he came runing into camp & informed us that one of our men was killed in the village and war was declared in earnest    We had no Military organization diciplin or Subordination  Several advised to cross over the river at once but thought best to wait untill day light But Gnl. Ashley our imployer Thought best to wait till morning and go into the village and demand the body of our comrade and his Murderer     Ashley being the most interested his advice prevailed    We laid on our arms epecting an attact as their was a continual Hubbub in the village

"At length morning appeared every thing still undecided     finally one shot was fired into our camp the distance being however to great for certain aim     Shortly firing became Quite general we seeing nothing to fire at      Here let me give a Short discription of an Indian City or village as it is usually cald     Picture to your self (50) or (100) large potatoe holes as they are usuly caled in the west (10) to (15) feet in diameter and 8 to 10 feet high in the center covered on the outside with small willow brush then a (a) layer of coarse grass a coat of earth over all a hole in one side for a door and another in the top to let out the smoke a small fire in the center all Told     The continual wars between them and Sioux had caused them to picket in their place     You will easely prceive that we had little else to do than to Stand on a bear sand barr and be shot at, at long range     Their being seven or Eigh hundred guns in village and we having the day previously furnished them with abundance of Powder and Ball     many calls for the boats to come ashore and take us on board but no prayers or threats had the    the Boats men being completely Parylized     Several men being wounded a skiff was brought ashore     all rushed for the Skiff and came near sinking it but it went the boat full of men and water the shot still coming thicker and the aim better we making a brest work of our horses (most) they nerly all being killed     the skiffs having taken sevarl loads on Board the boats at length the shot coming thicker and faster one of the skids (was turned) was let go     the men clambering on Boad let the skiff float off in their great eaganess to conceal themselves from the rapid fire of the enemy     I seeing no hopes of Skiffs or boats comeing ashore left my hiding place behind a dead hors, ran up stream a short distance to get the advantage of the current and coricieving myself to be a tolerable strong swimer stuck the muzzle of my rifle in belt the lock ove my head with all my clothes on     but not having made sufficien calculation for the strong current was carried passed the boat within a few feet of the same     one Mr Thomas Eddie but the shot coming thick he did not venture from behin the cargo Box and so could not reach me with a setting pole which held in his hands     Kowing now or at thinking that I had the river to swim my first aim was to rid myself of all my encumbraces and my Rifle was the greatest     in my attempt to draw it over my head it sliped down the lock ketching in my belt comeing to the surface to breathe I found it hindred worse that it did at first     making one more effort I turned the lock side ways and it sliped through which gave me some relief but still finding myself to much encumbred I next unbucled my belt and let go my Pistols     still continueing to disengage my self I next let go my Ball Pouch and finally one Sleeve of my Hunting shirt which was buckskin and held an immence weight of water     when rising to the surface I heard the voice of encoragemnt saying hold on Clyman I will soon relieve you     This Reed Gibson who had swam in and caught the skiff the men had let go afloat and was but a few rods from me     I was so much exausted that he had to haul me into the skiff wh I lay for a moment to cacth breath when I arose to take the only remaing ore when Gibson caled oh, god I am shot and fell forward in the skiff     I encouraged him and Perhaps not fatally give a few pulls more and we will be out of reach     he raised and gave sevreral more strokes with the oar using it as a paddle when coplained of feeling faint when he fell forward again and I took his plac in the stern and shoved it across to the East shore whare we landed     I hauled the skiff up on the shore and told Gibson to remain in the Skiff and I would go upon the high land whare I could see if any danger beset us thair. After getting up on the river bank and looking around I Discovered sevral Indian in the water swimming over of whoom ware nearly across the stream     I spoke to Gibson telling him of the circumstance     he mearly said (said) save yourself Clyman and pay no attention to me as I am a dead man and they can get nothing of me but my Scalp     My first Idea was to get in the skiff and meet them in the water and brain them with the oar     But on second look I com-concluded there ware to many of them and they ware too near the shore     then I looked for some place to hide But there being onley a scant row of brush along the shore I concluded to take to the open Pararie and run for life     by this time Gibson had scrambled up the bank and stood by my side and said     run Clyman but if you escape write to my friends in Virginia and tell them what has become of me     I for the open Prarie and Gibson for the brush to hide     At first I started a little distance down the river but fearing that I might be heading in some bend I steered directly for the open Prarie and looking Back I ssaw three Inians mount the bank being intirely divested of garments excepting a belt around the waist containing a Knife and Tomahawk and Bows and arrows in their     They made but little halt and started after me     One to the right the other to the left while the third took direct after me     I took direct for the rising ground I think about three - miles of there being no chanc for dodging the ground being smooth and level   but haveing the start of some 20 or 30 rods we had appearantle an even race for about one hour when I began to have the palpitation of the heart and I found my man was gaining on me    I had now arived at a moderately roling ground and for the first time turned a hill out of sight    I turned to the right and found a hole wased in the earth some 3 feet long 1 1/2 feet wide and Pehaps 2 feet deep with weeds and grass perhaps one foot high surrounding it     into this hole I droped and persuer immediatle hove in sight and passed me about fifty yards distant both my right an left hand persuers haveing fallen cosiderably in the rear and particularly the one on my right    here fortune favoured me for my direct persuer soon passed over some uneven ground got out of sight when I arose and taking to the right struck into a low ground which covered me and following it soon came into a moderately steep ravine    in all this time I gained breath and I did not see my persuers until I gained the top of the ridge over a Quarter of a mile from my friend    when I gained this elevation I turned around the three standing near together I made them a low bow with both my hand and thanked god for my present Safety and diliveranc

"But I did not remain long here    wishing to put the gratest possible distance between me and the Arrickarees I still continued Southward over a smoothe roling ground    But what ware my reflection being at least Three Hundred miles from any assistanc unarmed and uprovided with any sort of means of precureing a subsistance not even a pocket Knife I began to feel after passing So many dangers that my propects ware still verry slim,  mounting some high land I saw ahed of me the river and Quite a grove of timber and being verry thirsty I made for the water intending to take a good rest in the timber    I took one drink of water and setting down on a drift log a few minuits I chanced to look the and here came the boats floating down the stream    the watcing along the shores saw me about as soon as I saw them    the boat was laid in and I got aboard

"I spoke of my friend Gibson whe I was informed he was on board I immediately wen to the cabin where he lay but he did not recognize me being in the agonies of Death the shot having passed through his bowels    I could not refrain from weeping over him who lost his lifee but saved mine    he did not live but an hour or so and we buried him that evening the onley one of (12) that ware killed at the arrickarees    Eleven being left on the sand bar and their Scalps taken for the squaws to sing and dance over.

"Before meeting with this defeat I think few men had Stronger Ideas of their bravery and disregard of fear than I had but standing on a bear and open sand barr to be shot at from behind a picketed Indian village was more than I had contacted for and some what cooled my courage    before leaving the grave of my friend Gibson that before I had an oppertunity of writeing to his friends I forgot his post office and so never have writen    We fell down a few miles and lay by several day to wait and if any more men had escaped the buthery when on the third or fourth day Jack Larisson came to us naked as when he was born and the skin peeling off of him from the effects of the sun    he was wounded a ball passing through the fleshy part of one thigh and ldging in the other    the ball was easily exticated and in a few (a few) days he was hobbling around     Larrisson had lain between two dead horses untill the boats left and he saw no other chance of escape but to swim the river    then divesting himself of all his clothing he took the water    the Indians came running and firing at his head but escaped without further injury    the wound Before mentioned he had recieved in the early part of the battle if it can be called Battle    supposing no more men had survived the slaughte we again droped down the river

"And landed under the side of an Isle and two men ware sent up to the mouth of the yellowstone and one boat containing the wounded and discouraged was sent down to Council bluffs with orders to continue to St Louis    This being the fore part of June    here we lay for Six weeks or two months living on scant and frquentle no rations allthough game was plenty on the main Shore    perhaps it was my fault in greate measure for several of us being allowed to go on Shore    we ware luckey enough to get Several Elk each one packing meat to his utmost capacity    there came on a brisk shower of rain Just before we reached the main shore and a brisk wind arising the men on the (men on the) boat would not bring the skiff and take us on board    the bank being bear and no timber neare we ware suffering with wet and cold    I went off to the nearest timber made a fire dried and warmed myself laid down and went to sleep    in the morning looking around I saw a fine Buck in easy gun shot and I suceeded in Killing him    then I was in town    plenty of wood plenty of water and plenty of nice fat venison    nothing to do but cook and eat     here I remained untill next morning then taking a good back load to the landing whare I met several men who had Just landed for the purpose of hunting for me     after this I was scarcely ever allowed to go ashore for I might never return

"In proceess of time news came that Col. Livenworth with Seven or eight hundred Sioux Indians ware on the rout to Punnish the Arrickarees and (18) or (20) men came down from the Yellow Stone who had gone up the year prevous     these men came in Canoes (came in canoes) and passed the Arrickarees in the night     we ware now landed on the main Shore and allowed more liberty than hertofore (at)     Col. Levenworth about (150) men the remnant of the (6) Regiment came and Shortly after Major Pilcher with the Sioux Indians (Indians) amounting to 5 or 600 warriers and (18) or 20 engagies of the Missourie furr Company and a grand feast was held and speeches made by whites and Indians

"After 2 days talk a feast and an Indian dance we proceded up stream     Some time toward the last of August we came near the arrickaree villages     again a halt was made arms examined amunition distributed and badges given to our friends the Sioux which consisted of a strip of white muslin bound around the head to distinguish friends from foes

"The third day in the afternoon being 2 or three miles from the villages the Sioux made a breake     being generally mounted they out went us although we ware put to the double Quick and when we arived the plain was covered with Indians which looked more like a swarm bees than a battle field     they going in all possible directions     the Rees having mounted and met the Sioux a half mile from their pickets But as soon as we came in sight the Rees retreated into their village     the boats came up and landed a short half mile below the village     but little efort was mad that afternoon except to surround the Rees and keep them from leaveing     the Sioux coming around one side and the whites around the other      Quite a number of dead Indians streued over the plain     I must here notice the Bravery of one Sioux     a Ree ventured out some distance from the pickets and held some tantalizeing conversation with the Sioux, one Siox on a fast horse approached him slowly Still bantering each other to approach nearer     at length the Sioux Put whip to his horse taking directly for the Ree and run him right up to the then firing at full speed wheeled to retreat     the Rees inside of the pickets firing some 40 or 50 of them covered him completely in smoke but Sioux and his horse came out safe and the Rees horse went in through the gate without a rider     the Rees friends came out and carried in the man     Several Rees lay dead and one in long shot (shot) of the pickets     the old Sioux chief Brought one of his wives up with a war club who struck the corps a number of blow with club he tantalizeing the Rees all the time for their cowardice in comeing out to defend thair dead comrad and allowing his Squaws to strike their braves in gunshot of their village     a common habit of the Indians in war is the first man that comes to the body of a dead enemy is to take his Scalp     the second will take off his right hand the third his left the fourth his right foot the fifth his Left foot and hang thes trophies around their necks to shew how near they ware to the death of their enemy on the field of Battle and in this case a member of our Sioux shewed Trophies     one more circumstance and I am done   one large middle aged Sioux blonged to the grizzle Bear medicine came on hand feet to the body of a dead Ree in the attitude of a grzzly Bear snorting and mimican the bear in all his most vicious attitudes and with his teeth tore out mouth fulls of flesh from the breast of the dead body of the Ree

"But I will not tire you with details of the savage habits of Indians to their enimies but I will merely state that it is easy to make a savage of a civilised man but impossible to make a civilised man of a savage in one Generation

"The third day in the afternoon one of the Ree chiefs came out alone offering terms of peace     a Schedule was drawn up to be confirmed on the morrow     in a half hour after this was undestood our Sioux packed up and ware out of sight also the most of the Missourie companies men

"The night was Quiet but the two previous we had a lively picture of pandimonium the waing of squaws and children the Screams and yelling of men the fireing of guns the awful howling of dogs the neighing and braying of hosses and mules with the hooting of owls of which thy a number all intermingled with the stench of dead men and horses made the place the most (most) disagreeable that immaginnation could fix Short of the bottomless pit In the morning however our Quiet night was easily accounted for the Rees having dserted thair village early in the night previous     a few men with an Interpeter ware sent forward to hunt them up and bring them back     they returned about noon not being able to overtake them     one circumstanc I must not omit to mention     Captain Riley since General Riley who gave California her constituon was present and in command of company of Company A..6th Regiment and requested pemition to lead a forlorn hope into the villag but was denied that honour     he then became allmost furious and swore that he demande the prviledge stating that they had been laying at garison at Council Bluffs for 8 or 10 years doeing nothing but eating pumpkins and now a small chance for promotion occured and it was denied him and might not occurr again for the next 10 yeares (again)

"We Remained one night more in our stinking disageeable camp when we loosed cable and droped down stream     4 men of our mountanier corps was left behind and in an hour after we left a great smoke arose and the acursd village was known to be on fire      three Squaw 2 verry old and feebe and one sick and unabe to move ware found to have been left as not worth caring for     these ware removed into a lodge which was preserved     Col. Levenworth had given special orders that the village be left unmolested & ordered the boats landed and role called to assertain who if any ware missing     the sargent called over the roles rapidly and reported all present then it must be Souix

"We having to hunt for our living we soon fell behind the Col. and his corps droping down to a place called fort Keawa a trading establishment blonging to Missourie furr Company

"Here a small company of I think (13) men ware furnished a few horses onley enough to pack their baggage they going back to the mouth of the yellow Stone     on their way up they ware actacted in the night by a small party of Rees killing two of thier men and they killing one Ree     amongst this party was a Mr Hugh Glass who could not be rstrand and kept under Subordination     he went off of the line of march one afternoon and met with a large grissly Bear which he shot at and wounded     the bear as is usual attacted Glass     he attemptd to climb a tree but the bear caught him and hauled to the ground tearing and lacerating his body in feareful rate     by this time several men ware in close gun shot but could not shoot for fear of hitting Glass     at length the beare appeaed to be satisfied and turned to leave when 2 or 3 men fired     the bear turned immediately on glass and give him a second mutilation     on turning again several more men shot him when for the third time he pouncd on Glass and fell dead over his body     this I have from information not being present     here I leave Glass for the presen     we having bought a few horses and borrowed a few more left about the last of September and proceded westward over a dry roling highland a Elleven in number     I must now mention honorable exceptions to the character of the men engaged at St Louis being now thined down to onley nine of those who left in March and first Jededdiah Smith who was our Captain Thomas Fitzpatrick William L. Sublett and Thomas Eddie all of which will figure more or less in the future     in evening we camped on White clay Creek a small stream running thick with a white sediment and resembling cream in appearance but of a sweetish pugent taste     our guide warned us from using this water too freely as caused excessive costiveness which we soon found out

"We prceeded up this stream one day not in sight since we left the Missourie     part of the nxt day same when our guide infomed us to take what water we could as we would not reach water untill about noon the next day     our means of taking water being verry small we trailed on untill dark and camped on a ridge whare the cactus was so thick that we could scarcely find room to spred our Blankets     Starting early about 11 oclock we arived at our expected water But behold it was entirely dry not even dam mud to be found but here we found a few Shrubby oaks to protect us from the scorching sun     We rested perhaps half an hour     15 miles to the water yet and being all on foot and a pack horse to leade can we if we hold out reach it before dark     we urged and hauled our stubron horses along as fast as posible our guide getting a long way ahead and finely out of sight     my pack horse being more tractabe than most others I soon got ahead of my companions and we got strung out a mile in (tingth) the country some what roling and one steering off to the right or left in search of water     we ware not onley long but wide and it appeared like we might never all collect togather again     I followd as near as possible the last appeance of our guide but deveating slightly to the right     struck on a hole water about an hour before sunset     I fired my gun immedeately and then ran into the pool arm deep my horse foloing me

"Comeing out I fired my gun again     one man and horse made their appearance     the horse out ran the man plunging into the water first     each man as he came fired his gun and Shouted as soon as he could moisten his mouth and throat Sufficienty to mak a noise   about dark we all got collected except two who had given out and ware left buried in the sand all but their heads     Capt Smith Being the last who was able to walk and he took Some water and rode about 2 miles back bringing up the exhausted men which he had buried in the sand     and this two days of thirst and Starvation was made to cross a large bend of the white clay River   in the morning we found it yet 4 or 5 miles to the river whare our guide waiting for us     I have been thus particular in describing the means and trobles of traveling in a barren and unknown region     here our River is a beautiful Clare stream running over a gravely bottom with some timber along its course having from its bed of mud and ashes for the sediment spoken of is nearer it mouth     Continued up the vally of this stream to Sioux encampment of the Bois Brulie tribe whare we remained several days trading for Horses and finely obtained 27 or 28 which gave us 2 horses to each man and two or three spare animals   so far the country is dry not fit for cultivation (Tere may) However there may be and proaly is better soil and better grising higher up amongst the hills as it certainly grew better (was) the farther we proceeded up the stream and there was an incras of Shrubery and soil     Likewise here our guide left us to return with the Horses we had borrowed of the Miourie Furr compy.

"We packed up and crossed the White Clay river and proceeded north westernly over a dry roling Country for several days meting with a Buffaloe now and then which furnished us with provision for at least one meal each day     our luck was to fall in with the Oglela tiribe of Sioux whare traded a few more horses and swaped of some of our more ordinay

"Country nearly the same short grass and plenty of cactus untill we crossed the Chienne River a few miles below whare it leaves the Black Hill range of Mountains     here some aluvial lands look like they might bear cultivation     we did not keep near enough to the hills for a rout to travel on and again fell into a tract of county whare no vegetation of any kind existed beeing worn into knobs and gullies and extremely uneven      a loose grayish coloured soil verry soluble in water running thick as it could move of a pale whitish coular and remarkably adhesive     there on a misty rain while we were in this pile of ashes and it loded down our horses feet (feet) in great lumps     it looked a little remarkable that not a foot of level land could be found the narrow revines going in all manner of directions and the cobble mound of a regular taper from top to bottom     all of them of the percise same angle and the tops share     the whole of this region is moveing to the Misourie River as fast as rain and thawing of Snow can carry it     by enclining a little to the west in a few hours we got on to smoothe ground and soon cleared ourselves of mud     at length we arived at the foot of the black Hills which rises in verry slight elevation about the common plain     we entered a pleasant undulating pine Region cool and refreshing so different from the hot dusty planes we have been so long passing over and here we found hazlenuts and ripe plumbs a luxury not expected     We had one two day travel over undulating Pine with here and there an open glade of rich soill and fine grass but assinding the Ridges unill we arived near the summet our rout became brushy mainly Scruby pine and Juniper the last covered in purple beries     comencing our desent the ravines became steep and rugged an rockey the waters flowing westward     we suposed we ware on the waters of Powder river     one evening late gowing dwn a small stream we came into a Kenyon and pushed ouselves down so far that (that) our horses had no room to turn     while looking for a way out it became dark     by unpacking and leading our animals down over Slipery rocks three of us got down to a nce open glade whare we killed a Buffaloe and fared Sumpiously that night while the rest of the Company remained in the Kenyon without room to lie down     we now found it would not do to follow down any stream in these moutains as we ware shure to meet with rocky inaccessible places     So with great exertion we again assended to the top of a ridge and ware Quite lucky in gitting a main devide which led us a considerable distance before had to desend again     but this portion of the mountain fumished our horses with no food and they began to be verry poor and weak so we left 3 men and five horses behind to recruit while the rest of us proceded on there being some sighn of Beaver in the vicinity and hoping to soon find more where we Might all Stop for a time     The Crow Indians being our place of destination a half Breed by the name of Rose who spoke the crow tongue was dispached ahead to find the Crows and try to induce some of them to come to our assistance we to travel directly west as near as circumstances would permit     supposing we ware on the waters of Powder River we ought to be within the bounds of the Crow country     continueing five days travel since leaveing our given out horses and likewise Since Rose left us late in the afternoon while passing through a Brushy bottom a large Grssely came down the vally we being in single file men on foot leding pack horses     he struck us about the center then turning ran paralel to our line     Capt. Smith being in the advance he ran to the open ground and as he immerged from the thicket he and the bear met face to face     Grissly did not hesitate a moment but sprung on the capt taking him by the head first     pitcing sprawling on the earth he gave him a grab by the middle fortunately cathing by the ball pouch and Butcher Kife which he broke but breaking several of his ribs and cutting his head badly     none of us having any sugical Knowledge what was to be done one Said come take hold and he wuld say why not you so it went around     I asked Capt what was best     he said one or 2 for water and if you have a needle and thread git it out and sew up my wounds around my head which was bleeding freely     I got a pair of scissors and cut off his hair and then began my first Job of dessing wounds     upon examination I the bear had taken nearly all his head in his capcious mouth close to his left eye on one side and clos to his right ear on the other and laid the skull bare to near the crown of the head leaving a white streak whare his teeth passed     one of his ears was torn from his head out to the outer rim     after stitching all the other wounds in the best way I was capabl and according to the captains directions the ear being the last I told him I could do nothing for his Eare     0 you must try to stich up some way or other said he     then I put in my needle stiching it through and through and over and over laying the lacerated parts togather as nice as I could with my hands     water was found in about ame mille when we all moved down and encamped the captain being able to mount his horse and ride to camp whare we pitched a tent the onley one we had and made him as comfortable as circumtances would permit     this gave us a lisson on the charcter of the grissly Baare which we did not forget     I now a found time to ride around and explore the immediate surroundings of our camp and assertained that we ware still on the waters of shiann river which heads almost in the eastern part of the Black hill range taking a western course for a long distance into an uneven vally whare a large portion of (of) the waters are sunk or absorbd then turning short to the east it enters the Black hill rang though a narrow Kenyon in appeareantly the highest and most abrupt part of the mountain enclosed in immence cliffs of the most pure and Beautifull black smooth and shining and perhaps five hunded to one thousand feet high     how this slate extends I cannot tell     We passe through this slate Quary about 2 miles and one of the men observed here or at some such place Mosses must have obtaind the plates or tables on which the declogue was inscirobed     some miles farther west I visited place of a different character containing Quite a grove of Petrifid timber standing laying and inclining at various angles one stub in Perticular wa so high that I could barely lay my hand on the top sitting in the saddle the body and main branches scatered on the ground     dismouted and picked up several fragments which ware so hard so to bring fire fom steel     A mountaneer named Harris being St Louis some yers after undertook to describe some of the strange things seen in the mountains     spoke of this petrified grove in a restaurant whare a caterer for one of the dailys was preset and the next morning his exagerated statement came out saying a petrified forest was lately dicovered whare the trees branches leaves and all were perfect and the small birds sitting on them with their mouths open singing at the time of their transformation to stone   This is a fine country for game Buffaloe Elk Bare deer antelope &c likewise it produces some Hazel nuts Plumbs white thorn Berries wild currant large and of fine flavour and abundance of nutricious grass and some land that would bear cultivation     after remaining here ten days or 2 weeks the capt. Began to ride out a few miles and as winter was rapidly approaching we began to make easy travel west ward and Struck the trail of Shian Indians   the next day we came to their village traded and swaped a few horses with them and continued our march across a Ridge mountains not steep & rocky (in general) but smooth and grassy in general with numerous springs and brook of pure water and well stocked with game     dsending this ridge we came to the waters of Powder River Running West and north     country mountainous and some what rockey

"Rose with 15 or 16 Crow Indians came to our camp as soon as we raised a fire in the evenin     they had been watching for two days passed to assure themselves that no Shians were with us     they and the Shians being at war they the Crows brought us several spare Horses which relieved our Broke down animals and gave us a chance to ride but they caused us to travel to fast for our poor horses and so Capt Smith gave them what they could pack sending Rose with them and we followed at our own gait stoping and Traping for beaver occasionly Crossing several steep and high ridges which in any other country would be called mountains     Crossed Shell river Quite a stream running into the bighorn as I believe     the mountains here do not appear to have any rigular direction but run in all directions     are tolerable high but not generall precipitous     Before laving this perticular Region I think it the Best Suppied with game of any we passe through in all our Travels and therefore do not wonder that the Indian would not give it up     and if it is not too cold there some soil that will bear cultivation     we ware there through the month of November     the nights war frosty but the days ware generally warm and pleasant     on Tongue river we struck the trail of the (of the) Crow Indians     Passed over another ridge of mountains     we came on to Wind River which is merely another name for the Big horn above the Big horn Mountain     the most of this Region is barren and worthless if my recollection is right     from the heads of the Shian untill we came on to Wind river we ware Bountifully supplied with game but here we found none at all     two causes may be assigned for this     first the country not being well supplied naturely an Second the Crows haveing passed recntly through they had killed and drove off all the game in our reach     our meals being few and far betwen our only hope being to push a head and overtake the Crow village     The weather being cold and blustry and I thought the River was well named     slight Snows and Strong north winds prevailed continually our horses and urselves became completely exausted before we reached the main Encampment     Still passing up Wind river untill we came immediately north of Freemont peak on the Wind River Mountain, whare we halted for the winter.     The vally is here narrow and uneven but tolerable well set in grass and Buffalo plenty at the time of our arival     several grand hunts taking place which being the first I had witnessed I will attempt to give some description     the whole grown male population turning out Early in the morning and taking rank along on each side of a narrow vally those on fleetest horses taking a circuit and getting behind a large herd Bufflo drove them pell mell down the vally those Stationed on the sides falling in as they passed     they run down the Buffaloe so that old and slow could catch them and even men on foot Killed them with Bow and Arrow the Squaws old men and children following and Buchering and secureing meat and skins as fast as possible     the night after this grand hunt not more than half the people came in to camp they remaining out to watch the wolves fom the meat untill they could get it packed in   dying now commenced on a grand scale and wood was in demand

"In a few days we moved a short distance to whare wood was more plenty and had another gran hunt after which individuals ware allowed to hunt at their pleasure     all though this vally is in heart of the rocky Mountain range Snow did not fall deep and every Clear day it thawed whare the sun struck fairly     In the second grand chase I did not go out on horseback as in the first but took it on foot with the foot men the day being too cold for pleasant riding     we proceeded to the lower part of the vally whare the stream that passes through the vally enters a narrow Kenyon it being 6 or 7 miles from whare the race commenced and standing on a cliff nealy ove the buffaloe we had rare Sport shooting them     on enquiry as to how many ware slaughterd that day every one said a thousand or upwards     thi I did not dispute thinking it fell near the fact myself and about 20 Indians who stood on the rocks of Kenyon Killed Seventy by my own count     It is remarkable the amount of cold these Crows can withstand     I have frequently seen them dozens of them runing bufaloe on horseback for hours togather all their bodies naked down to the belt around their waists and dismount with but a slight trimble and many of them take a bath every morning even whn the hoar frost was flying thick in the air     and it was necessary to cut holes in the ice to get at the water

"They put their children to all kinds of hardships and the femals in particular     pack the littl girls and dogs when on march     the whole employment of the males being hunting and war and at the time we ware there at least one third of the warriors ware out in war parties in different directions they being in a state of warfare with all the neighbouring tribes     in February we made an effort to cross the mountains north of the wind River nge but found the snow too deep and had to return and take a Southern course east of the wind river range which is here the main Rockey mountans and the main dividing ridge betwen the Atlantic and Pacific

"In traveling up the Popo Azia a tributary of Wind River we came to an oil springe neare the main Stream whose surface was completely covered over with oil resembling Brittish oil and not far from the same place ware stacks Petrolium of considerable bulk     Buffaloe being scarce our supply of food was Quite scanty   Mr Sublett and my self mounted our horses one morning and put in quest of game we rode on utill near sundown when we came in sight of three male bufalo in a verry open and exposed place   our horses being too poor to run we made an effort to aproach them by crawling over the ice and snow but our game saw us and was about to brake when we arose and fired     luckeyly we broke ones Shoulder     had we had our horses at hand so as to mount and follow we would soon had meat but our horses ware narely a mile Distant so Sublett went back for our horses and I loaded my rifle and followed the wounded buffalo there being an uneven riadge about a mile distant in the direction the game went and (and) my hope was to head him there and git another shot     I ran with all my speed and fortunately when I oame out of cover was in easy gun shot     when all breathless mearly pointing my in the direction of the game to my surprise I gave him a dead Shot     bifore I could reload he fell dead in a steep gutter whare I could not commence butcering untill Sublett came up to assist me     night came on before we got our meat buchered we gatherd some dry sage and struck a light by which we got of a small Quantity of meat     Shortly after the sun left us the North wind arose and grew stronger and stronger and a cold frosty snow commenced falling before finished our suppers     there being no wood and sage being small and scarce and scattering what little fire we had in all directions     we spread down our scanty bed and covered ourselves as close as possbele from the wind and snow which found its way through ever crevice

"Allthough the wind blew and the fine frosty snow crept in and around us this was not the worst for the cold hard frozen earth on which we lay was still more disagreeabi so that sleep was out of the Quetion by turning every method for rest     day light at last apeared when we consulted what we had best do under the circumstances and it was agre that I should arise and gather some sage brush which was small and scarce and wold remain under the Buffaloe robe and keep his hands warm if posibi to strike fire     But all our calculations failed for as soon our hands became exposed to the air they became so numb that we could not hold thee flint and Steel     we then reourse to our guns with no better Success for the wind was So strong and for the want of some fine metireal to catch the fire in     we or my comrade raped himslf in his robe and laid down after a great struggle I made out to saddle my hore and was about to leave the inhospitable     not wishing to leave my friend I asked him if he Could ride if I saddled his horse but he thought not and was unwilling to try     I then made several unsuccesful efforts to obtain fire     Just as I was about to mount and leave I run my hand in the ashes to see if any warmth remained     to my Joy found a small cole of fire alive not larger than a grain of Corn     throwing it in to hand full of metirial I had gathered it starte a blaze in a minuit and in one minuit more I had a fine fire     my friend got out and crawled up to my side     drawing our robe around our backs we tried to warm ourselves but the wind being so strong the smoke and fire came into our faces by the back current     I sadled the other hors packed up the meat while Sublet gathered sagebrush to keep up afire which was no little Job for carried away allmost a fast as he put it on     at length we mounted and left     I put my friend ahead and followed urging his horse along    We had about four miles to timber I found I would be liable to freeze on hoseback so I got of and walked it being a north inclination the snow was about one foot deep     I saw my friend was too numb to walk so I took the lead for the last half mile and struck a grove of timber whare there was an old Indian but one side of which was still standing     I got fire allmost Immediately then ran back and whoped up my friends horse     assisted him to dismount and get to the fire     he seemed to no life to move as usual he laid down nearly assleep while I went Broiling meat on a stick     after awile I roused him up and gave him his Breakfast when he (he) came to and was as active as usual

"I have been thus particular in discribing one night near the sumit of the Rockey mountas allthough a number simular May and often do occur

"We now moved over a low ridge and Struck on Sweet Water Since assertained to be a tributary of the Platte river     it was cold and clear the evening that we encamped on Sweet water many of South sides of the hills ware bare of Snow     Buffalo scarce and rations limited     some time in the night the wind arose to a hericane direct from the north and we had Keep awake and hold on to our blankets and robes to keep them from flying away     in the morning we gathered a large pile of dry pine logs and fixed up our blankets against the wind but the back current brought the smoke and ashes into our faces     in fifteen or twenty minuets after taking down our Screen ou fire blew intirely away and left the wood but no fire     we then cleared away the snow under the lea of a clump of willows fixed ourselves as comfortable as circumstances would permit     laid to sleep the wind still blowing all day and night without abatement     the next morning several of us wrapt ourselves in our robes and (and) attempted to take some exercise following down the stream     it became confined in a narrow Kenyon     under the points of some rocks we would be partly secure from the cold blast     toward evening my companion Mr Branch Saw a mountain sheep on the rocks allmost perpedicular over us and fired at him     had the good luck to hit him when he came tumbling down to our feet     we soon prepared him and packed him to camp whare efforts were made to broil small pieces but soon gave it up the wind still keeping up such a continual blast as to prevent even a starving mountaneer from satisfying his hunger     we all took to our blankets again it being the only way to keep from perishing the blast being so strong and cold     Late in the night however the lull came on and being awake I arose and found it Quite comfortable     I struck up a fire and commenced cooking and eating by broiling thin slices of meat after a short time my comrades began to arise and we talked cooked eat the remainder of the night     in the morning we started out in various directions some to look for game and some to look for more comfortable Quarters our prsent camp being close to the East foot of the wind River mountain and on a low divide directly south of the Wind rever vally having a full sweep for the North Wind Caused us such uncomfortabe time     Two paties proceeded one in Quest of game the other for a camping ground     I went down the sweet water some four or five miles to whare the Kenyon opened out into Quite a valley and found plenty of dry aspin wood in a small grove at the Lower end of the Kenyon and likewise plenty of Mountain Sheep on the cliffs which bounded the stream one of which I had the luck to kill and which I Buiied in a snowdrift     the next morning we packed up and moved down to the Aspin grove whare we remained some two or three weeks Subsisting on Mountain sheep     on our way to our new camp we ware overtaken by one of the heaviest falls of snow that I ever witnessed with but verry slight wind     the snow came down in one perfect sheet but fortunately it did not las but a short time and we made our camp in good season     as I before said we did not leave this camp until the Mountain Sheep began to get scarce and wild and before leaving we here made a cash of Powder Lead and several other articles supposed to be not needed in our Springs hunt and it was here likewise understood that should circumstances at any time seperate us we would meet at this place and at (and) all event we would all met here again or at some navigable point on the stream below at or by the first June acording to our recording     on leaving sweet water we struck in a South westerly direction this being some of the last days of February I think in 1825     our stock of dried meat being verry scant we soon run out entirely -no game to be found     It appears this winter was extremely dry and cold one fourth of the gound on those ridges south of Sweetwater being entirely bare from the effect of strong west winds which carried the snow over to the East and south sides of the ridges     about sixth morning out Mr Sublette and myself ware in the advance looking out for game     a few antelope had been see the evening previous     a slight snow falling we came on the fresh track of a buffalo and supposing he could not be far off we started full speed after him     in running about a mile we came in sight of him laying down     the animal being thick a hevy it  difficult to hit a vital part when he is laying down we consulted as to the surest way disabling him and came to the concusion that I fire at the rump and if posible breake his coupling while Sublett would fire at his Shouldei and disable him in forward parts so we greed Sublett counting one two three while we both drew aim and both pull trigger at the word fire when both of our rifles went of simutanu and both effected what we desired the animal strugling to rise but could not     Sublett beat me in reloading and approached and shot him in the head Just as the company came in sight on a hight of land when they all raised a Shout of Delight at sight many not having tasted food for four days & none of us from two to three     now you may suppose we had a happy time in butchering

"Our company coming up we butchered our meat in short order many of the men eating large slices     raw we packed up our meat & traveled on until in the afternoon in hopes of finding water but did not, succeed but finding large clumps of sage brush we camped all eaving & part of the night     continuing on we found we had crossed the main ridge of the Rocky mountan in the month of January 15 days without water or only such as we got from melting snow our horses eating snow and living fairly when beaver ground was found     although we struck Sandy about noon some of the men went immediatly to cutting the ice with thier Tomahauks     called out frose to the bottom     I walked down they had got down the length of thier arms and was about to give it up     I pulled out one of my pistols and fired in to the hole     up came the water plentifull for man & horse     there being a small growth of willows along the stream we had wood & water plenty but our supply of meat had given out     passed down the stream     on day in the eavning a buffalo was killed and we were all happy for the present     this stream and one other we passd and on the 20th of February we reached Green river where I had the luck to kill two wild geese     here Capt Smith with seven men left us he going farther south     we left to trap on the branches of the stream as soon as the ice gave way     in a few day wild geese became plenty on thawy & Springy places     the ice giving way we found beaver plenty and we commenced trapping     We found a small family of diggers or Shoshone Indians on our trapping ground whom we feed with the overplus of Beaver     the snow disapearing our diggar friends moved off without our knowledge of when or where and when they had gone our horses runing loose on night they all disapeared and we were unable to find them or in what direction they had gone      we continued trapping on foot with fair success for about six weeks when the 10th of June was drawing close and we had promised all who were alive to meet at our cash on Sweet Water     accordingly we cashed traps & furs hung our saddle & horse equipments on trees & set out for Sweet water     the same day about noon on turning the point of a ridge we met face to face with five & six indians mounted on some of our horses     preparing to take possesion of as many horses each on taking hold of a lariet and ordering our friens to dismount but after a short consultation we decided to go with them to thier camp about one mile up a steep mountain where we found six lodges 18 men with a large supply of squaws & children & our old acquaintences that we had fed with the fat of Beaver while the earth was thickly covered with snow     we made our camp on rising ground in easy gunshot of thier village     all our horses wer given up but one and we concluded this one was hid in the mountain so we caught one of the men tied him fast told them we intended to kill him if our horse was not given back which soon brought him     we gave them a few presents and left for our old camp dug up our cashe cut down our saddles and again started for Sweet water     this brought us to the 15th of June no sight of Smith or his party     remaining here a few days Fitzpatrick & myself mounted & fowling down stream some 15 miles we concluded the stream was unnagable it beeing generally broad & Shallow and all our baggae would have to be packed to some navigable point below where I would be found waiting my comrades who would not be more than three or four days in the rear     I moved slowly down stream three days to the mouth where it enters the North Platt     Sweetwater is generafly bare of all kind of timber but here near the mouth grew a small thick clump of willoes     in this I cut a lodging place and geathered some driftwood for a fire which I was just preparing to strike fire I heard human voices on the stream below     carfuly watching I saw a number of Indians advance up along the opisite side of the stream being here about 4 rods wide     they come up & all stoped on the other side there being a lot of dry wood     they soon raised 4 or 5 fires     turned loose or tithered all their horses thier being 22 Indians and 30 horses     I did not feel myself perfectly safe with so large number a war party in my rear vacinity     recoclecting that for 1/2 mile back the country was bare & sandy the moon a few days before the full I could be trased as easly as if it had been snow so I walked backward across the sandy reagon out to a narrow rocky ridge & following along the same to where the creek broke through it I crossed over to the east side and climbing a high point of rocks I had a fair vew of my disagreeable neighbors at about 40 rods distance     some of them lay down and slept while some others kept up the fire     about midnight they all arose collected up thier horses     too of the horses crossed over the creek     two Indians on horse back folowed after when a shout was raised & eight or ten mounted went to assist hunting the fugitives     after an hours ride backward & farword they gave up & all started of north     I crawled down from my pearch & caught a few moments of cool feverish sleep.     next day I surveyed the canyon through which the river passes fearfuly swift without any perpendicular fall     while on one of the high Cliffs I discovered about 20 Ind approach the stream right where I had left a bout halfhour before all on foot     they soon mad a small raft of driftwood on which they piled their war equipments & clothes swam the stream and went South     I returned to my observatory on Sweetwater     I remained in this vacinity eleven days     heard nothing of my party began to get lonsome examened my store of amuniton found I had plenty of Powder but only eleven bullets     reconitering all the curcumstances in my mind I thought if I spent a week in trying to find my old companions & should not be lucky enough to meet with them I would not have balls enough to take me to civilisation & not knowing whither I was on platt or the Arkansas on the 12th day in the afternoon I left my look out at the mouth of Sweetwater and proceeded down stream knowing that civilation could be reached Eastward     the days were quite warm & I had to keep near the water     nothing occured for several day worth mentioning     at length I found a bull boat lying drifted up on a sand bar and the marks of a large Indian ranch on the main shore   I knew by the boat some white men had here for the Indians never made such boats     this gave me a fient hope of meeting some white men in this Indian world     but continuing down stream several days I saw several persons running Buffalow on the hills on the other side of the river but to far to tell who they were     Great herds of Buffalo were drivin across the river right around me     I shot one and dried some meat remained here two days in hopes of meeting some human beeing     even a friendly Indian would be a relief to my solitude but no person appearing I moved off down stream     some two or three days after I came into a grove of large old cottonwoods where a number of village Martins were nesting

"I laied down in the shade and enjoyed their twittering for some hours it reminded me of home & civilisation I saw a number of wild horses on the and I thought I would like to ride     there is what hunters call "creasing"; this is done by shooting the animal through the neck close above the main bone     this stuns them for a minute or more     The next buffalo I killed I made a halter, I was forced to keep near the watter for there were no springs or streams on the plain. A fine black stallion came down to drink and beeing in close gun shot I fired     as soon as he had gained the main bank he fell & I ran up & haltered him but he never moved for his neck was broken so I missed my wild ride     still continuing my journy at length I came to a large recent lodge trail crossing the stream I thought it would be plesent to communicate with humans even though it were Indians     so I plunged into the stream and crossed over the water was only breast deep any where     the villiag was about two miles out in the hills      on my approach to them I did not attract thier attention untill within a few rods of thier lodges when a lot of men & boys came running up to me yelling most hidously when one man ran up & snatched my butcher knife and waved it across my breast     I thought this a bravado so bared my breast for the fated streike & this perhaps saved my life for he immediatly commensed taking such things as suited him others taking my blankets then all my balls firesteel & flint     another untied my powder into a rag when one or two cam rapedly up on horseback     then they all left one of the mounted me talking very loud & rapidly     then he ordered me to mount behind him which I was glad to do     he took me to his lodge and gave me to understand that I must not roam around any for some of them were bad and would kill me     I remained in his lodge all night and after the morning meal he had three horses broght     he & his son each mounted one and told me to mount the other     he rode forward his son in the rear     we rode basck over the river & about two miles on the trail where I dismounted and went on a foot again     they sitting on their horses watched me untill I had passed over half mile when they returned,     my hair had not been cut since I left St Louis     I lost my hat at the defeat of the Arickrees and had been bareheaded ever since     my hair was quite long my friend had beged for my hair the morning before we left his lodge     I had granted his request so he barbered me with a dull butcher knife before leaving me he made me understand he loved me that he had saved my lief and wanted the hair for a memento of me     as soon as my friends were fairly out of sight I left the trail fearing some unfriendly Indian     the grass was thick and tall which made it hard to brake through so I frequently took ridges which led me from my course     the second day in the afternoon I came to a pool of water under an oak tree     drank     sat down under the shade a short time ate a few grains of parched corn (which my friends had given me) when I heard a growling of some animals near by     I advanced a few steps and saw two Badgers fighting     I aimed at one but my gun mised fire     they started off     I geathered some bones (horse brobly)     ran after & killed both     I struck fire with my gunlock skined & roasted them     made a bundle of grass & willow bark.     it rained all the later part of the night but I started early in the morning the wet grass beeing more pleasant to travel than the dry     it continu showery for several days     the mosquitos be uncommonly bad     I could not sleep and it got so damp I could not obtain fire and I had to swim several rivers     at last I struck a trail that seamed to lead in the right direction which I determined to follow to its extreeam end     on the second day in the afternoon I got so sleepy & nervous that it was with difficulity I kept the trail     a number of times I tumbled down asleep but a quick nervous gerk would bring me to my feet again     in one of these fits I started up on the trail traveled some 40 rods when I hapened to notise I was going back the way I had come     turning right around I went on for some time with my head down when raising my eyes with great surprise I saw the stars & stripe waving over Fort Leavenworth     I swoned emmediatly     how long I lay unconcious I do not know I was so overpowered with joy     The stars & stripes came so unexpected that I was completly overcome being on decending ground I sat contemplating the scene     I made several attemps to raise but as often fell back for the want of strength to stand     after some minnites I began to breathe easier but certainly no man ever enjoyed the sight of our flag better than I did     I walked on down to the fort there beeing no guard on duty I by axident came to the door of Cap Rileys quarters where a waiter brought out the Cap who conducted me to Generl Leavenworth who assigned me a company & gave me a writen introduction to the settelers where I got credit for a change of clothing some shoes & a soldiers cap     I remained here receiving rashions as a soldier for ten days when to my surprise Mr Fitzpatrick Mr Stone & Mr Brench arived in a more pitible state if possible than myself.     Fitspatrick went back to the cashe after leaving me     they opened the cashe found the powder somwhat damp spread it out to dry got all ready to pack up when Smith and party arived     the day being quite warm the snow melted on the mountains and raised the water & they came to the conclusion to build a boat there & Fitspatrick Stone & Branch to get the furs down the best way the could     Cap Smith to take charge of all the hunting & traping and to remain in the country the season     so acordingly they made a skin boat & Cap coming down on horsback to bring me back again (but I was off surveying the canyon)     he saw here I had cut my lodge in the willows where the Indians had been w Jusion the Indians had killed me so and not finding me came to the conclusion the Indians had killed me so made that report the three men hauld the boat down stream untill it was nearly worn out and the water still falling so cashed the furs on Indipendence rock and ran down into the Canyon   thier boat filled & they lost two of thier guns & all of thier balls     they broke the Brass mounting of the gun with rocks bent it into balls with which they killed a few buffalo,    the Skin boat I saw on the sand bar was made by four men who crossed over from the mouth of the Bighorn thier winter camp and landing on the shore walked up into the valliage which proved to be Arickaree     two of them escaped but the other two were killed     this afterward proved to be the same people I saw runing buffalo   by axident I escaped from them     the camp I waided the river to meet were Pownees and here too I bearly saved my scalp but lost my hair"

(Mourn not dear friends to anguish deriven
Thy children now unite in Heaven
Mourn not for them who early blest
Have found in Heaven eternal rest)