Astoria

or

Anecdotes of an Enterprise

Beyond the

Rocky Mountains

By

Washington Irving


  • Bibliographical Information.
  • Biographical Information.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Author's Introduction

    Chapter 1.

    Objects of American Enterprise.--Gold Hunting and Fur Trading.-- Their Effect on Colonization.--Early French Canadian Settlers.-- Ottawa and Huron Hunters.--An Indian Trading Camp.--Coureurs Des Bois, or Rangers of the Woods.--Their Roaming Life.--Their Revels and Excesses.--Licensed Traders.--Missionaries.--Trading Posts.--Primitive French Canadian Merchant.--His Establishment and Dependents.--British Canadian Fur Merchant.--Origin of the Northwest Company.--Its Constitution.--Its Internal Trade.--A Candidate for the Company.--Privations in the Wilderness.--Northwest Clerks. --Northwest Partners.--Northwest Nabobs.--Feudal Notions in the Forests.--The Lords of the Lakes.--Fort William.--Its Parliamentary Hall and Banqueting Room.--Wassailing in the Wilderness.

    Chapter 2.

    Rise of the Mackinaw Company.-- Attempt of the American Government to Counteract Foreign Influence Over the Indian Tribes.-- John Jacob Astor.-- His Birth-Place.-- His Arrival in the United States.-- What First Turned His Attention to the Fur Trade.-- His Character, Enterprises, and Success.-- His Communications With the American Government.-- Origin of the American Fur Company

    Chapter 3.

    Fur Trade in the Pacific- American Coasting Voyages- Russian Enterprises.- Discovery of the Columbia River.- Carver's Project to Found a Settlement There.-Mackenzie's Expedition.- Lewis and Clarke's Journey Across the Rocky Mountains- Mr. Astor's Grand Commercial Scheme.-His Correspondence on the Subject With Mr. Jefferson.His Negotiations With the Northwest Company.- His Steps to Carry His Scheme Into Effect.

    Chapter 4.

    Two Expeditions Set on Foot.- The Tonquin and Her Crew.- Captain Thorn, His Character.- The Partners and Clerks - Canadian Voyageurs, Their Habits, Employments, Dress, Character, Songs- Expedition of a Canadian Boat and Its Crew by Land and Water.- Arrival at New York.- Preparations for a Sea Voyage.- Northwest Braggarts. -Underhand Precautions- Letter of Instructions.

    Chapter 5.

    Sailing of the Tonquin. - A Rigid Commander and a Reckless Crew. - Landsmen on Shipboard.- Fresh-Water Sailors at Sea.- Lubber Nests. - Ship Fare.- A Labrador Veteran- Literary Clerks.- Curious Travellers.- Robinson Crusoe's Island.- Quarter-Deck Quarrels.- Falkland Islands.- A Wild-Goose Chase.- Port Egmont.- Epitaph Hunting.- Old Mortality- Penguin Shooting.- Sportsmen Left in the Lurch.-A Hard Pull.- Further Altercations.- Arrival at Owyhee.

    Chapter 6.

    Owyhee.- Sandwich Islanders- Their Nautical Talents.- Tamaahmaah. -His Navy.- His Negotiations.- Views of Mr. Astor With Respect to the Sandwich Islands- Karakakooa.- Royal Monopoly of Pork.- Description of the Islanders-Gayeties on Shore.- Chronicler of the Island. -Place Where Captain Cook was Killed.- John Young, a Nautical Governor.- His Story.- Waititi - A Royal Residence.- A Royal Visit - Grand Ceremonials.- Close Dealing- A Royal Pork Merchant- Grievances of a Matter-of-Fact Man.

    Chapter 7.

    Departure From the Sandwich Islands.- Misunderstandings- Miseries of a Suspicious Man.- Arrival at the Columbia - Dangerous Service. - Gloomy Apprehensions- Bars and Breakers.- Perils of the Ship. Disasters of a Boat's Crew.-Burial of a Sandwich Islander.

    Chapter 8.

    Mouth of the Columbia.- The Native Tribes.- Their Fishing.- Their Canoes.- Bold Navigators- Equestrian Indians and Piscatory Indians, Difference in Their Physical Organization.- Search for a Trading Site. - Expedition of M'Dougal and David Stuart- Comcomly, the OneEyed Chieftain.- Influence of Wealth in Savage Life.- Slavery Among the Natives.-An Aristocracy of Flatheads.- Hospitality Among the Chinooks- Comcomly's Daughter.- Her Conquest.

    Chapter 9.

    Point George- Founding of Astoria- Indian Visitors.- Their Reception.- The Captain Taboos the Ship.- Departure of the Tonquin. - Comments on the Conduct of Captain Thorn.

    Chapter 10.

    Disquieting Rumors From the Interior.- Reconnoitring Party- Preparations for a Trading Post.- An Unexpected Arrival - A Spy in the Camp.- Expedition Into the Interior- Shores of the Columbia - Mount Coffin.- Indian Sepulchre.- The Land of Spirits- Columbian Valley- Vancouver's Point.-Falls and Rapids.- A Great Fishing Mart.- The Village of Wishram. - Difference Between Fishing Indians and Hunting Indians- Effects of Habits of Trade on the Indian Character.- Post Established at the Oakinagan.

    Chapter 11.

    Alarm at Astoria.- Rumor of Indian Hostilities.- Preparations for Defense.- Tragic Fate of the Tonquin.

    Chapter 12.

    Gloom at Astoria- An Ingenious Stratagem.- The Small-Pox Chief. - Launching of the Dolly.-An Arrival. - A Canadian Trapper.-A Freeman of the Forest- An Iroquois Hunter.- Winter on the Columbia.-Festivities of New Year.

    Chapter 13.

    Expedition by Land.- Wilson P. Hunt.- His Character.- Donald M'Kenzie.- Recruiting Service Among the Voyageurs. - A Bark Canoe.- Chapel of St. Anne.-Votive Offerings.- Pious Carousals, - A Ragged Regiment.-Mackinaw.- Picture of a Trading Post.-Frolicking Voyageurs.-Swells and Swaggerers.- Indian Coxcombs.-A Man of the North.-Jockeyship of Voyageurs- Inefficacy of Gold.- Weight of a Feather- Mr. Ramsay Crooks- His Character.- His Risks Among the Indians.-His Warning Concerning Sioux and Blackfeet.-Embarkation of Recruits.- Parting Scenes Between Brothers, Cousins, Wives, Sweethearts, and Pot Companions.

    Chapter 14.

    St. Louis.- Its Situation.- Motley Population.- French Creole Traders and Their Dependants.- Missouri Fur Company- Mr. Manuel Lisa. - Mississippi Boatmen. - Vagrant Indians. - Kentucky Hunters - Old French Mansion- Fiddling- Billiards- Mr. Joseph Miller - His Character- Recruits- Voyage Up the Missouri. - Difficulties of the River.- Merits of Canadian Voyageurs.- Arrival at the Nodowa.- Mr. Robert M'Lellan joins the Party- John Day, a Virginia Hunter. Description of Him.- Mr. Hunt Returns to St. Louis.

    Chapter 15.

    Opposition of the Missouri Fur Company.-Blackfeet Indians.- Pierre Dorion, a Half-Breed Interpreter.- Old Dorion and His Hybrid Progeny- Family Quarrels.- Cross Purposes Between Dorion and Lisa. - Renegadoes From Nodowa.- Perplexities of a Commander.- Messrs. Bradbury and Nuttall Join the Expedition.- Legal Embarrassments of Pierre Dorion.- Departure From St. Louis.- Conjugal Discipline of a Half-Breed.- Annual Swelling of the Rivers.-Daniel Boone, the Patriarch of Kentucky.-John Colter.-His Adventures Among the Indians.-Rumors of Danger Ahead.-Fort Osage.-An Indian War-Feast.-Troubles in the Dorion Family.- Buffaloes and Turkey-Buzzards.

    Chapter 16.

    Return of Spring.- Appearance of Snakes.- Great Flights of Wild Pigeons.- Renewal of the Voyage.- Night Encampments.- Platte River. - Ceremonials on Passing It.- Signs of Indian War Parties.- Magnificent Prospect at Papillion Creek.- Desertion of Two Hunters.An Irruption Into the Camp of Indian Desperadoes.- Village of the Omahas.-A necdotes of the Tribe.- Feudal Wars of the Indians.-Story of Blackbird, the Famous Omaha Chief.

    Chapter 17.

    Rumors of Danger From the Sioux Tetons.- Ruthless Character of Those Savages.- Pirates of the Missouri.- Their Affair with Crooks and M'Lellan.- A Trading Expedition Broken Up.- M'Lellan's Vow of Vengeance.- Uneasiness in the Camp.- Desertions.- Departure From the Omaha Village.- Meeting With Jones and Carson, two Adventurous Trappers.- Scientific Pursuits of Messrs. Bradbury and Nuttall. - Zeal of a Botanist.- Adventure of Mr. Bradbury with a Ponca Indian. -Expedient of the Pocket Compass and Microscope.- A Messenger From Lisa.- Motives for Pressing Forward.

    Chapter 18.

    Camp Gossip.- Deserters.- Recruits.- Kentucky Hunters.- A Veteran Woodman.- Tidings of Mr. Henry.-Danger From the Blackfeet. - Alteration of Plans.- Scenery of the River.- Buffalo Roads.- Iron Ore.- Country of the Sioux.- A Land of Danger.-apprehensions of the Voyageurs.- Indian Scouts.- Threatened Hostilities.- A Council of War.- An Array of Battle.-A Parley.- The Pipe of Peace.- Speech-Making.

    Chapter 19.

    The Great Bend of the Missouri- Crooks and M'Lellan Meet With Two of Their Indian Opponents- Wanton Outrage of a White Man the Cause of Indian Hostility- Dangers and Precautions.-An Indian War Party.- Dangerous Situation of Mr. Hunt.- A Friendly Encampment. -Feasting and Dancing.- Approach of Manuel Lisa and His Party -.A Grim Meeting Between Old Rivals.- Pierre Dorion in a Fury.- A Burst of chivalry.

    Chapter 20.

    Features of the Wilderness- Herds of Buffalo.- Antelopes- Their Varieties and Habits.- John Day.- His Hunting Strategy- Interview with Three Arickaras- Negotiations Between the Rival Parties - The Left-Handed and the Big Man, two Arickara Chiefs.- Arickara Village- Its Inhabitants- Ceremonials on Landing- A Council Lodge.- Grand Conference - Speech of Lisa.- Negotiation for Horses. -Shrewd Suggestion of Gray Eyes, an Arickara Chief -Encampment of the Trading Parties.

    Chapter 21.

    An Indian Horse Fair.- Love of the Indians for Horses- Scenes in the Arickara Village.-Indian Hospitality.- Duties of Indian Women. Game Habits of the Men.-Their Indolence.-Love of Gossiping. - Rumors of Lurking Enemies.- Scouts.- An Alarm.-A Sallying Forth. -Indian Dogs.-Return of a Horse-Stealing Party.-An Indian Deputation.-Fresh Alarms.-Return of a Successful War Party.-Dress of the Arickaras.- Indian Toilet.- Triumphal Entry of the War Party. - Meetings of Relations and Friends.-Indian Sensibility.- Meeting of a Wounded Warrior and His Mother.- Festivities and Lamentations.

    Chapter 22.

    Wilderness of the Far West.- Great American Desert- Parched Seasons. -Black Hills.- Rocky Mountains.- Wandering and Predatory Hordes. -Speculations on What May Be the Future Population.-Apprehended Dangers.-A Plot to Desert.-Rose the Interpreter.- His Sinister Character- Departure From the Arickara Village.

    Chapter 23.

    Summer Weather of the Prairies.- Purity of the Atmosphere- Canadians on the March.- Sickness in the Camp.- Big River.- Vulgar Nomenclature.- Suggestions About the Original Indian Names.- Camp of Cheyennes.- Trade for Horses.- Character of the Cheyennes.- Their Horsemanship.- Historical Anecdotes of the Tribe.

    Chapter 24.

    New Distribution of Horses- Secret Information of Treason in the Camp.- Rose the Interpreter- His Perfidious Character- His Plots. -Anecdotes of the Crow Indians.- Notorious Horse Stealers.- Some Account of Rose.- A Desperado of the Frontier.

    Chapter 25.

    Substitute for Fuel on the Prairies.- Fossil Trees.- Fierceness of the Buffaloes When in Heat.- Three Hunters Missing.- Signal Fires and Smokes.- Uneasiness Concerning the Lost Men.- A Plan to Forestall a Rogue.- New Arrangement With Rose.- Return of the Wanderers.

    Chapter 26.

    The Black Mountains.- Haunts of Predatory Indians.- Their Wild and Broken Appearance.- Superstitions Concerning Them - Thunder Spirits.- Singular Noises in the Mountains- Secret Mines.-Hidden Treasures.- Mountains in Labor. - Scientific Explanation.-Impassable Defiles.- Black-Tailed Deer.-The Bighorn or Ahsahta.- Prospect From a Lofty Height.- Plain With Herds of Buffalo.- Distant Peaks of the Rocky Mountains.- Alarms in the Camp.- Tracks of Grizzly Bears.- Dangerous Nature of This Animal.- Adventures of William Cannon and John Day With Grizzly Bears.

    Chapter 27.

    Indian Trail.- Rough Mountain Travelling.- Sufferings From Hunger and Thirst- Powder River.- Game in Abundance.-A Hunter's Paradise.- Mountain Peak Seen at a Great Distance.- One of the Bighorn Chain.- Rocky Mountains.- Extent.- Appearance.- Height.- The Great American Desert.- Various Characteristics of the Mountains.- Indian Superstitions Concerning Them.- Land of Souls.- Towns of the Free and Generous Spirits- Happy Hunting Grounds.

    Chapter 28.

    Region of the Crow Indians- Scouts on the Lookout- Visit From a Crew of Hard Riders.- A Crow Camp.- Presents to the Crow Chief.-Bargaining.-Crow Bullies.-Rose Among His Indian Friends.-Parting With the Crows.- Perplexities Among the Mountains.- More of the Crows.- Equestrian Children.- Search After Stragglers.

    Chapter 29.

    Mountain Glens.- Wandering Band of Savages- Anecdotes of Shoshonies and Flatheads.- Root Diggers- Their Solitary Lurking Habits.- Gnomes of the Mountains.- Wind River.- Scarcity of Food.-Alteration of Route.-The Pilot Knobs or Tetons.- Branch of the Colorado. - Hunting Camp.

    Chapter 30.

    A Plentiful Hunting Camp.-Shoshonie Hunters - Hoback's River - Mad River- Encampment Near the Pilot Knobs.- A Consultation. - Preparations for a Perilous Voyage.

    Chapter 31.

    A Consultation Whether to Proceed by Land or Water- Preparations for Boat-Building.- An Exploring Party.- A Party of Trappers Detached.- Two Snake Visitors.- Their Report Concerning the River. - Confirmed by the Exploring Party. - Mad River Abandoned.- Arrival at Henry's Fort.- Detachment of Robinson, Hoback, and Rezner to Trap.- Mr. Miller Resolves to Accompany Them.- Their Departure.

    Chapter 32.

    Scanty Fare.- A Mendicant Snake.- Embarkation on Henry River- Joy of the Voyageurs.-Arrival at Snake River.- Rapids and Breakers. - Beginning of Misfortunes.- Snake Encampments.- Parley With a Savage.- A Second Disaster. - Loss of a Boatman.- The Caldron Linn.

    Chapter 33.

    Gloomy Council.-Exploring Parties- Discouraging Reports- Disastrous Experiment.- Detachments in Quest of Succor.- Caches, How Made. -Return of One of the Detachments- Unsuccessful.- Further Disappointments- The Devil's Scuttle Hole

    Chapter 34.

    Determination of the Party to Proceed on Foot.- Dreary Deserts Between Snake River and the Columbia.- Distribution of Effects Preparatory to a March- Division of the Party.- Rugged March Along the River.-Wild and Broken Scenery.- Shoshonies.- Alarm of a Snake Encampment- Intercourse with the Snakes.- Horse Dealing. - Value of a Tin Kettle.- Sufferings From Thirst- A Horse Reclaimed. -Fortitude of an Indian Woman.- Scarcity of Food.- Dog's Flesh a Dainty.-News of Mr. Crooks and His Party.-Painful Travelling Among the Mountains.- Snow Storms.- A Dreary Mountain Prospect. -A Bivouac During a Wintry Night.- Return to the River Bank.

    Chapter 35.

    An Unexpected Meeting.-Navigation in a Skin Canoe.-Strange Fears of Suffering Men.-Hardships of Mr. Crooks and His Comrades.-Tidings of MLellan.- A Retrograde March.- A Willow Raft.- Extreme Suffering of Some of the Party - Illness of Mr. Crooks.- Impatience of Some of the Men.- Necessity of Leaving the Laggards Behind.

    Chapter 36.

    Mr. Hunt Overtakes the Advance Party.- Pierre Dorion, and His Skeleton Horse.- A Shoshonie Camp.- A Justifiable Outrage.- Feasting on Horse Flesh.- Mr. Crooks Brought to the Camp.- Undertakes to Relieve His Men.- The Skin Ferry-Boat.- Frenzy of Prevost.- His Melancholy Fate.-Enfeebled State of John Day.-Mr. Crooks Again Left Behind.-The Party Emerge From Among the Mountains.-Interview With Shoshonies.-A Guide Procured to Conduct the Party Across a Mountain. -Ferriage Across Snake River.-Reunion With Mr Crook's Men.- Final Departure From the River.

    Chapter 37.

    Departure From Snake River- Mountains to the North.- Wayworn Travellers- An Increase of the Dorion Family.- A Camp of Shoshonies.-A New-Year Festival Among the Snakes.-A Wintry March Through the Mountains.-A Sunny Prospect, and Milder Climate.- Indian Horse-Tracks.- Grassy Valleys.- A Camp of Sciatogas.- Joy of the Travellers.-Dangers of Abundance.-Habits of the Sciatogas.- Fate of Carriere.- The Umatilla.- Arrival at the Banks of the Columbia.-Tidings of the Scattered Members of the Expedition.- Scenery on the Columbia.- Tidings of Astoria- Arrival at the Falls.

    Chapter 38.

    The Village of Wish-ram.- Roguery of the Inhabitants.- Their Habitations.- Tidings of Astoria.- Of the Tonquin Massacre.- Thieves About the Camp.-A Band of Braggarts- Embarkation.- Arrival at Astoria.-A Joyful Reception.- Old Comrades- Adventures of Reed, M'Lellan, and M'Kenzie Among the Snake River Mountains.- Rejoicing at Astoria.

    Chapter 39.

    Scanty Fare During the Winter.- A Poor Hunting Ground.- The Return of the Fishing Season.- The Uthlecan or Smelt.- Its Qualities. - Vast Shoals of it.- Sturgeon.- Indian Modes of Taking It.- The Salmon- Different Species.- Nature of the Country About the Coast. -Forests and Forest Trees.- A Remarkable Flowering Vine.- Animals. - Birds.- Reptiles - Climate West of the Mountains - Mildness of the Temperature.- Soil of the Coast and the Interior.

    Chapter 40.

    Natives in the Neighborhood of Astoria- Their Persons and Characteristics. - Causes of Deformity -- Their Dress. - Their Contempt of Beards- Ornaments- Armor and Weapons.-Mode of Flattening the Head.- Extent of the Custom.- Religious Belief.- The Two Great Spirits of the Air and of the Fire.- Priests or Medicine Men.- The Rival Idols.- Polygamy a Cause of Greatness- Petty Warfare.- Music, Dancing, Gambling.- Thieving a Virtue.- Keen Traders- Intrusive Habits - Abhorrence of Drunkenness- Anecdote of Comcomly.

    Chapter 41.

    Spring Arrangements at Astoria.- Various Expeditions Set Out.- The Long Narrows.- Pilfering Indians.- Thievish Tribe at Wish-ram. - Portage at the Falls- Portage by Moonlight.- An Attack, a Route, and a Robbery.- Indian Cure for Cowardice.- A Parley and Compromise.- The Despatch Party Turn Back.- Meet Crooks and John Day.- Their Sufferings.- Indian Perfidy.- Arrival at Astoria.

    Chapter 42

    Comprehensive Views.- To Supply the Russian Fur Establishment.- An Agent Sent to Russia.- Project of an Annual Ship.- The Beaver Fitted Out.- Her Equipment and Crew.- Instructions to the Captain.- The Sandwich Islands.Rumors of the Fate of the Tonquin.- Precautions on Reaching the Mouth of the Columbia.

    Chapter 43.

    Active Operations at Astoria- Various Expeditions Fitted Out.- Robert Stuart and a Party Destined for New York - Singular Conduct of John Day.- His Fate.- Piratical Pass and Hazardous Portage.-Rattlesnakes. - Their Abhorrence of Tobacco.- Arrival Among the Wallah-Wallahs. - Purchase of Horses- Departure of Stuart and His Band for the Mountains.

    Chapter 44.

    Route of Mr. Stuart- Dreary Wilds.- Thirsty Travelling.-A Grove and Streamlet.- The Blue Mountains.- A Fertile Plain With Rivulets.- Sulphur Spring- Route Along Snake River- Rumors of White Men.-The Snake and His Horse.- A Snake Guide.-A Midnight Decampment.- Unexpected Meeting With Old Comrades- Story of Trappers' Hardships- Salmon Falls- A Great Fishery.- Mode of Spearing Salmon.- Arrival at the Caldron Linn.- State of the Caches. - New Resolution of the Three Kentucky Trappers.

    Chapter 45.

    The Snake River Deserts.- Scanty Fare.- Bewildered Travellers -.Prowling Indians- A Giant Crow Chief.- A Bully Rebuked- Indian Signals.- Smoke on the Mountains.- Mad River.- An Alarm.- An Indian Foray- A Scamper.- A Rude Indian joke.- A Sharp-Shooter Balked of His Shot.

    Chapter 46.

    Travellers Unhorsed- Pedestrian Preparations- Prying Spies.- Bonfires of Baggage- A March on Foot.- Rafting a River - The Wounded Elk.- Indian Trails.- Willful Conduct of Mr. M'Lellan.- Grand Prospect From a Mountain.- Distant Craters of Volcanoes- Illness of Mr. Crooks.

    Chapter 47.

    Ben Jones and a Grizzly Bear.- Rocky Heights- Mountain Torrents. -Traces of M'Lellan.- Volcanic Remains- Mineral Earths.- Peculiar Clay for Pottery.- Dismal Plight of M'Lellan.- Starvation.- Shocking Proposition of a Desperate Man.- A Broken-Down Bull.- A Ravenous Meal.-Indian Graves- Hospitable Snakes.-A Forlorn Alliance.

    Chapter 48.

    Spanish River Scenery.-Trail of Crow Indians.- A Snow-Storm.- A Rousing Fire and a Buffalo Feast.-A Plain of Salt.-Climbing a Mountain. -Volcanic Summit.- Extinguished Crater.- Marine Shells.- Encampment on a Prairie. - Successful Hunting.- Good Cheer.- Romantic Scenery - Rocky Defile.- Foaming Rapids.- The Fiery Narrows.

    Chapter 49.

    Wintry Storms.- A Halt and Council.- Cantonment for the Winter. - Fine Hunting Country.- Game of the Mountains and Plains.- Successful Hunting- Mr. Crooks and a Grizzly Bear.- The Wigwam. - Bighorn and Black-Tails.- Beef and Venison.- Good Quarters and Good Cheer.- An Alarm.- An Intrusion.- Unwelcome Guests.- Desolation of the Larder. - Gormandizing Exploits of Hungry Savages. - Good Quarters Abandoned.

    Chapter 50.

    Rough Wintry Travelling - Hills and Plains.- Snow and Ice.- Disappearance of Game.- A Vast Dreary Plain.- A. Second Halt for the Winter.- Another Wigwam.- New Year's Feast.- Buffalo Humps, Tongues, and Marrow-Bones.- Return of Spring.- Launch of Canoes. - Bad Navigation. - Pedestrian March. - Vast Prairies. - Deserted Camps.- Pawnee Squaws.- An Otto Indian.- News of War.- Voyage Down the Platte and the Missouri.- Reception at Fort Osage. - Arrival at St. Louis.

    Chapter 51.

    Agreement Between Mr. Astor and the Russian Fur Company- War Between the United States and Great Britain.- Instructions to Captain Sowle of the Beaver- Fitting Out of the Lark.- News of the Arrival of Mr. Stuart.

    Chapter 52.

    Banks of the Wallah-Wallah.- Departure of David Stuart for the Oakinagan.- Mr. Clarke's Route Up Lewis River.- Chipunnish, or Pierced-Nose Indians- Their Character, Appearance, and Habits.- Thievish Habits.- Laying Up of the Boats.- Post at Pointed Heart and Spokan Rivers.- M'Kenzie, His Route Up the Camoenum.-Bands of Travelling Indians.- Expedition of Reed to the Caches.- Adventures of Wandering Voyageurs and Trappers.

    Chapter 53.

    Departure of Mr. Hunt in the Beaver- Precautions at the Factory.- Detachment to the Wollamut.- Gloomy Apprehensions.- Arrival of M'Kenzie.- Affairs at the Shahaptan.- News of War.- Dismay of M'Dougal.-Determination to Abandon Astoria.-Departure of M'Kenzie for the Interior.- Adventure at the Rapids.- Visit to the Ruffians of Wish-ram. - A Perilous Situation.- Meeting With M'Tavish and His Party.- Arrival at the Shahaptan.- Plundered Caches.-Determination of the Wintering Partners Not to Leave the Country.- Arrival of Clarke Among the Nez Perces.- The Affair of the Silver Goblet.- Hanging of An Indian.- Arrival of the Wintering Partners at Astoria.

    Chapter 54.

    The Partners Displeased With M'Dougal.- Equivocal Conduct of That Gentleman- Partners Agree to Abandon Astoria.- Sale of Goods to M'Tavish.- Arrangements for the Year.- Manifesto Signed by the Partners- Departure of M'Tavish for the Interior.

    Chapter 55.

    Anxieties of Mr. Astor.- Memorial of the Northwest Company- Tidings of a British Naval Expedition Against Astoria. - Mr. Astor Applies to Government for Protection.- The Frigate Adams Ordered to be Fitted Out.- Bright News From Astoria.- Sunshine Suddenly Overclouded.

    Chapter 56.

    Affairs of State at Astoria.-M'Dougal Proposes for the Hand of An Indian Princess- Matrimonial Embassy to Comcomly.- Matrimonial Notions Among the Chinooks.- Settlements and Pin-Money.- The Bringing Home of the Bride.- A Managing Father-in-Law.- Arrival of Mr. Hunt at Astoria.

    Chapter 57.

    Voyage of the Beaver to New Archangel.- A Russian Governor.-Roystering Rule.- The Tyranny of the Table- Hard Drinking Bargainings.- Voyage to Kamtschatka.- Seal Catching Establishment at St. Paul's.- Storms at Sea.- Mr. Hunt Left at the Sandwich Islands. -Transactions of the Beaver at Canton.-Return of Mr. Hunt to Astoria.

    Chapter 58.

    Arrangements Among the Partners- Mr. Hunt Sails in the Albatross. - Arrives at the Marquesas- News of the Frigate Phoebe.- Mr. Hunt Proceeds to the Sandwich Islands.- Voyage of the Lark.- Her Shipwreck.- Transactions With the Natives of the Sandwich Islands - Conduct of Tamaahmaah.

    Chapter 59.

    Arrival of M'Tavish at Astoria.- Conduct of His Followers.- Negotiations of M'Dougal and M'Tavish. - Bargain for the Transfer of Astoria- Doubts Entertained of the Loyalty of M'Dougal.

    Chapter 60.

    Arrival of a Strange Sail.- Agitation at Astoria.- Warlike Offer of Comcomly. - Astoria Taken Possession of by the British. - Indignation of Comcomly at the Conduct of His Son-in-Law.

    Chapter 61.

    Arrival of the Brig Pedler at Astoria.- Breaking Up of the Establishment .-Departure of Several of the Company. - Tragical Story Told by the Squaw of Pierre Dorion.- Fate of Reed and His Companions. - Attempts of Mr. Astor to Renew His Enterprise.- Disappointment. - Concluding Observations and Reflection.

    Appendix