DRAKE, Francis (1545-96). The first Englishman to sail around the world was Sir Francis Drake. He also took a leading part in defeating the Great Armada sent by Spain to invade England. Born near Tavistock, in Devonshire, Drake grew up in a seafaring atmosphere. While still a boy he worked as a sailor. When he was 20 he sailed with his cousin, Sir John Hawkins, to Guinea on the west coast of Africa to obtain slaves. He rose to command a ship under Hawkins and was with him when Spaniards attacked the fleet off the port of Veracruz in Mexico. All but two of the English ships were destroyed in this battle, and Drake lost nearly everything he possessed. Drake never forgave the Spanish for their treachery on this occasion or for their cruel treatment of their English prisoners. He devoted the rest of his life to a relentless war against Spain. Drake gathered together his own band of adventurers and made three profitable voyages to the New World, plundering Spanish settlements and destroying Spanish ships.
In 1572 he made a daring march across the Isthmus of Panama. From a high tree he caught his first glimpse of the Pacific Ocean. Drake's great voyage around the world, from 1577 to 1580, had the secret financial support of Queen Elizabeth I and the war party in her council. They hoped it would end the Spanish monopoly of the profitable trade in the Pacific. Drake set out sailing with five ships. He intended to pass through the Strait of Magellan, near the southern tip of South America, and then explore the waters he had seen from the Isthmus of Panama. When the straits were passed, Drake's ship, the Golden Hind,pushed on alone, the other vessels having either turned back or been lost. As he went up the coast, he plundered Spanish settlements in Chile and Peru and captured treasure ships bound for Panama. Drake then sailed northward and claimed the California coast in the name of his queen. To avoid meeting the angered Spaniards by returning the way he came, he determined to return home by sailing around the world, as Ferdinand Magellan had done.
He crossed the Pacific and Indian oceans and reached the Atlantic by sailing around the southern tip of Africa. He reached England in November 1580, nearly three years after he set out. He was warmly acclaimed. Elizabeth shared the treasure he brought on his ship, which was "literally ballasted with silver." She honored him by dining on board his ship and by raising him to knighthood, though she knew this would infuriate the Spaniards.
In the war with Spain that broke out in 1585, Drake won his crowning honors. After once more carrying death and destruction to Spanish settlements in the West Indies, he led a daring expedition into the port of Cadiz, Spain. Here he destroyed so many vessels that for a whole year the Spaniards had to delay the expedition they were preparing for the invasion of England. Drake returned home in triumph. When the Spanish Armada finally did come sailing up the English Channel in 1588, Drake, as vice-admiral of the English fleet, played a chief part in the week-long running fight that drove off the Spaniards. During this fight Drake encountered a fine galleon commanded by Don Pedro de Valdez. Don Pedro was one of the leading promoters of the idea of dispatching the Armada to England. Yet when he and his men learned that their opponent was the daring El Draque ("the dragon") they surrendered at once. Some eight years later, on a final expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies, Drake became ill and died on board his ship in January 1596. More than any other of England's bold privateers, he had helped to set England on the way to becoming the mistress of the seas.