IDAHO

Forts, Posts, Camps, Cantonments, Houses, Barracks, Stations & Etc.


Boise Barracks | Camp Boise | Fort Boise (1) | Fort Boise (2) | Camp Boise River | Fort Bonneville
Camp Buford | Canoe Camp | Camp Chopunnish | Clearwater Post | Camp Coeur d'Alene | Fort Coeur d'Alene
Colt Killed Camp | Camp Conner | Eagle Rock Bridge Gap Post | Evan's Post | Fort Franklin | Fort Galloway
Fort Hall (1) | Fort Hall (2) | Fort Hall (3) | Fort Hall (4) | Fort Henry | Henry's Post | Camp Hope
Camp Howard (a) | Camp Howard (b) | Camp Howard (c) | Howe's Camp | Howse Fort | Hull Hill Fort
Kalispell House | Kinville's Post | Kullyspell House | Camp Lander | Camp Lapwai | Fort Lapwai
Lapwai Mission Station | Fort Lemhi | Long Camp | Cantonment Loring | Camp Lyon | MacKenzie's Post
Old Fort | Camp Osburn | Camp Reed | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post
Camp Reynolds Creek | Fort Russell | Fort Saling | Fort Sherman | Fort Simons | Skitswist Post | Smith's Camp
Fort Smith | Snake Fort | Cantonment Soldier | Camp Stevenson | Teton Pass Camp | Thompson's Post
Camp Three Forks Owyhee | Camp Wallace | Camp Wardner | Fort Weiser | Fort Wilson | Camp Winthrop

Forts

Fort Boise (1) | Fort Boise (2) | Fort Bonneville | Fort Coeur d'Alene | Fort Franklin | Fort Galloway
Fort Hall (1) | Fort Hall (2) | Fort Hall (3) | Fort Hall (4) | Fort Henry | Howse Fort | Hull Hill Fort | Fort Lapwai | Fort Lemhi Old Fort | Fort Russell | Fort Saling | Fort Sherman | Fort Simons | Fort Smith | Snake Fort | | Fort Weiser | Fort Wilson

Posts

Clearwater Post | Eagle Rock Bridge Gap Post | Evan's Post | Henry's Post | Kinville's Post | MacKenzie's Post | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post | Skitswist Post | Thompson's Post

Camps

Camp Boise | Camp Boise River | Camp Bruneau | Camp Buford | Canoe Camp | Camp Chopunnish | Camp Coeur d'Alene | Colt Killed Camp | Camp Conner | Camp Hope | Camp Howard (a) | Camp Howard (b) | Camp Howard (c) | Howe's Camp | Camp Lander | Camp Lapwai | Long Camp | Camp Lyon | Camp Osburn | Camp Reed | Camp Reynolds Creek | Smith's Camp Camp Stevenson | Teton Pass Camp | Camp Three Forks Owyhee | Camp Wallace | Camp Wardner | Camp Winthrop

Cantonments

Cantonment Loring | Cantonment Soldier

Houses

Kalispell House | Kullyspell House | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post

Barracks

Boise Barracks

Stations

Lapwai Mission Station

Fort Boise (1)
(1834 - 1855), near Parma
A Hudson's Bay Co. trading post on the east-side of the Snake River built to counter competition from American Fort Hall (1). Due to frequent Indian attacks and a damaging flood in 1853 it was abandoned in 1854. The Army established Camp Boise River at this site in 1855 and maintained it for only six weeks.

Fort Boise (2)
(1863 - 1912, 1916 - 1919, 1942 - 1944), Boise
The U.S. Army built the second fort so-named, originally called Camp Boise, and then in 1879 renamed Boise Barracks. Most of the property became a Veterans Hospital in 1920. The fort is located at a park near the VA Hospital, at Fifth and Fort Streets. Camp Edward A. Stevenson was created within the reservation in 1898 as a mustering point for state troops.

FORT BOISE:
In 1834 the Hudson Bay Company near the mouth of the Boise River erected Fort Boise. In 1854 the Snake River Indians massacred Twenty-one emigrants led by Alexander Ward in Boise Valley. This event leads to the closing of Fort Boise the next summer and Fort Hall in l856. Work began again on a new post in 1863 by a troop of Oregon Cavalry. Boise Barracks were established at Moores Creek by Major P. Lugenbeel and the US Cavalry. As wagon trains of miners and emigrants increased the next year, so did uprisings of the Snake River Shoshones. Thus, constant patrols crossed the Idaho tablelands to help keep the Indians peaceful, and to help support law officers in the mining camps. The site (renamed Boise Barracks in 1863) housed a small Cavalry force until 19l3. Since World Wear I, it has been used by the Veterans Administration; many fine buildings built in l890 remain. The oldest structure is the former officers quarters, built in 1863. The site is north of downtown Boise at 5th and Fort Streets.

Fort Bonneville
(1832 - 1834 ?), unknown location
An independent trading post built by Capt. Benjamin Bonneville somewhere on the Salmon River after abandoning his brief post on the Green River in Wyoming.  It may have lasted a second season.

Fort Bonneville was established in 1832, on Green River near the mouth of Horse Creek by Captain Benjamin L. E. Bonneville of the United States Army.

Bonneville, of French birth, was brought to the United States by his parents while he was still a child. As an adult, he served in the regular United States Army for fifteen years. At the time of his gaining a leave-of-absence from the army, he was thirty-six years of age. Bonneville's aim in traveling west, as he explained to mountain man and fur trapper Joseph R. Walker where they met in 1830, at Fort Gibson in the Indian Territory, was simple. Bonneville desired to lead a privately financed trapping expedition westward. His reason for telling Walker of his plans was that he needed to enlist an experienced mountaineer to lead the company of men that Bonneville, with Walker's assistance, would recruit.

In early August of 1832, Bonneville's company of 150 men, packhorses, mules, and a collection of twenty covered wagons drawn by oxen reached their proposed location on Green River. It was here that Bonneville decided to erect his fort, though Walker expressed several objections to the location. On one point Walker did agree with Bonneville, that this was an excellent place for a fort because of the fur trapping rendezvous that were often held here. But on the other side of the agreement he pointed out that rendezvous was yearly alternated to other locations as well. Walker also pointed out that the valley in question offered no shelter from winter storms and, besides, trapping parties varied their locations to winter-over depending on where the game and best forage for horses and mules was located.

In other words, even if Bonneville did build a fort here he could still go through an entire winter with no customers if the mountain men wintered somewhere else. And then, on top of that if, come summer, rendezvous was held somewhere else other than on Green River, Bonneville would still be out in the cold, so to speak.

Bonneville, not budging, went ahead with the building of Fort Bonneville. And, when completed, it was an impressive site. It was said to be "a formidable stockade of logs set firmly in the ground." It rose fifteen in height with two blockhouses located at two opposite corners. Surrounding it was ample grass to feed any stock. It was impressive, and when it was completed the trappers laughed at it.

The location of Fort Bonneville, as Walker had pointed out, was all wrong. The trappers, knowing all that Walker knew and agreeing with him, renamed the fort. In fact, they honored it with two names: "Fort Nonsense" and "Bonneville's Folly."

Then, at last, Bonneville may have come to his senses. He moved on. He and his men relocated to the upper Salmon River.

Fort Sherman, Fort Coeur d'Alene, Camp Coeur d'Alene
(1878 - 1900), Coeur d'Alene
A Federal post previously called Camp Coeur d'Alene until 1879, and Fort Coeur d'Alene until 1887. The fort is now a part of North Idaho College and the museum is in the original powder magazine. Two Officers' quarters still exist.

FORT SHERMAN
In 1840 Father Pierre Jean de Smet begins his missionary work in Idaho. In 1842 Father Point establishes the Jesuit Coeur d' Alene Mission of the Sacred Heart near Saint Maries. The Mission moves to a site near Cataldo in 1846, and is transferred in 1877 to Desmet where it stands today. Camp Coeur d' Alene was established on a site chosen by General William T. Sherman for its beauty. In 1887, it was renamed Fort Sherman.  Its three missions were to keep the peace in northern Idaho, watch the Canadian border, and protect the railroad and telegraph crews. The Canadians proved no problem, and the post was abandoned in 1900. The chapel, facing the old parade grounds still serves as church. The officer' quarters are now apartment houses. From Spokane, Washington, take US 10 east 10 miles to Coeur d' Alene, turn right to the City Park; four blocks west is the site of the fort.

Fort Franklin
(1860 - 1863), Franklin
A Mormon fort. Abandoned after the "Battle of Bear River" which was fought 12 miles north. The town was the state's first permanent white settlement.

Fort (Tom) Galloway
(1863), Weiser
A settlers' fort on the Weiser River four miles east of town.

Fort Hall (1) 
(1834 - 1856, 1859 - 1860), near Fort Hall
Originally a log stockaded trade post, with two bastions, built by Nathaniel Wyeth. Also known as Robert Evans' Trading Post. In 1836 it was sold to the Hudson's Bay Co., and was enlarged and rebuilt with adobe. Abandoned, and later occupied briefly by the U.S. Army. Flood waters washed away the fort in 1863. The site was rediscovered in 1916, and a monument is at the location on the river between the towns of Fort Hall and Sterling. A replica of this fort is located at Ross Park in Pocatello.

Fort Hall (2) / Cantonment Loring
(1849 - 1850), near Fort Hall
A Federal camp located three miles downriver from Fort Hall (1). Intended to protect the Oregon Trail, but abandoned for lack of supplies. Sometimes referred to as Fort Hall (2).

Fort Hall (3)
(1864), near Fort Hall
Remnants of the old fort were used to construct this fortified stage station on Spring Creek just north of Fort Hall (1).

Fort Hall (4)
(1870 - 1883), near Blackfoot
The U.S. Army built a new fort on Lincoln Creek 12 miles east of the Snake River and about 25 miles northeast of the old Fort Hall (1). After it was abandoned, the barracks were used as an Indian school. The buildings were eventually relocated to Ross Fork Creek. The Army post was located nine miles south of Blackfoot. The town of Fort Hall, which was 15 miles away, was the location of the Fort Hall Indian Agency.

FORT HALL
Originally established by an American Settler, Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, in 1834, this site becomes an emigrant landmark. Wyeth sold the post to the Hudson's Bay Company two years later. It was a key point in the overland route where the Oregon Trail splits to California and Oregon. In 1849 Fort Hall becomes a hub for trails and roads to the western parts of the United States. Over 20,000 emigrants who join the gold rush come through southeastern Idaho on the California Trail. Heavy traffic continues on the trail for many years. In 1870, the US Army put up fortifications about 25 miles northeast of the old trading post to protect stage and freight routes. In 1883, the barracks were eventually moved to Ross Fork Creek, about 25 miles northwest. The site is on US 91, approximately 12 sites north of Pocatello.

Fort Henry
(1810 - 1811), near Parker
A St. Louis Missouri Fur Company winter trade post, the first American trading post west of the Continental Divide, located on the south-side of the Henry's Fork of the Snake River. The site was rediscovered in 1927. Also called Andrew Henry's Post.

FORT HENRY
In 1810 Missouri Fur Company established Fort Henry, one of the first rendezvous and forts on the Snake River, near present day St. Anthony, first American trading post.

(Joseph) Howse Fort
(1810), near Clark Fork
A North West Co. trading post located on the Clark Fork River.

Hull Hill Fort
(1863), Weiser
A settlers' fort on Hull Hill.

Fort Lapwai
(1862 - 1884), Lapwai
A Federal fort originally called Camp Lapwai until 1863. It was briefly unoccupied in 1866. The Northern Idaho Indian Agency moved to the site in 1904. Several original structures still stand. Located in nearby Spalding was the state's first settlement, Lapwai Mission Station, built in 1836 by Henry Spalding.

FORT LAPWAI
Henry Harmon Spaulding establishes a Nez Perce Indian mission at Lapwai. First school in Idaho opens for Indian children at Lapwai. First White Child born in Idaho is Eliza Spaulding born at Lapwai. In 1839 Henry Spaulding starts publishing the Bible in Lapwai on the earliest printing press in the Pacific Northwest. Chief Timothy, the first native Christian leader, baptized November 17 1839. Troops were rushed to the Nez Perce Reservation in 1862, when miners were flocking into area and encroaching onto the reservation. The post was originally manned by Volunteers but replaced by Regulars in 1866. In 1884, the fort began to lose its value as a military installation; one building, now part of the Nez Perce Historical Park, remains. From Lewiston, take US 9S east of Lapwai; one mile south of town is the Indian Agency.

Fort Lemhi
(1855 - 1858), Tendoy
A Mormon settlement which consisted of a log stockaded fort enclosing 25 cabins, and an adobe-walled corral. Indian attacks forced the abandonment of the settlement. Few scattered adobe remains still exist on private property.
Lewis and Clark camped here in 1805 after crossing Lemhi Pass. Located nearby is Sacajawea Monument (Note: at various sites in Idaho, Sacagawea is spelled "Sacajawea").

"Fort Lemhi was founded in 1855 by twenty-seven Mormon missionaries, as a mission to the Bannock and Shoshone Indians of the Oregon Territory.

"The missionaries were prohibited from trading arms and ammunition with the Indians, but were encouraged to live with, feed, and clothe them and to learn their language.

"On June 18, 1855 the party moved to a site selected for a fort and began preparations for farming a tract of about eight acres that was later planted in corn, turnips, peas, beans, and potatoes. Twenty-five cabins were built and the fort.

"In 1857 sixty additional settlers were sent to join those at Fort Lemhi. At this time individual plots were surveyed and a second settlement was established two miles from the Fort. This change led to problems with the Bannock Indians.

"Shoo-woo-koo, the Big Rogue, the Bannock Chief, had welcomed the mission. He gave the missionaries land for farming and fishing and hunting privileges. They were not, however, to catch fish, kill game, or cut timber, if it was to be taken from the valley. Some of the settlers engaged in gold mining in the fall of 1855, and in 1857 eight wagon loads of dried salmon were exported to Salt Lake City.

"Tensions between the Indians and missionaries increased. As a result of a war between the Nez Perce Indians on one side, and the Bannock and Shoshone Indians on the other, in which the missionaries tried to serve as peacemakers, tensions between the Indians and the missionaries came to a head.

"On February 25, 1858 Bannock and Shoshone Indians raided Ft. Lemhi, driving off their livestock, and the missionaries were forced to abandoned the fort and return to Utah".

FORT LEMHI
In 1823 a battle was fought in Lemhi Valley between men of the Snake River country expedition and the Piegan Indians. In 1858 Mormon missionaries established Fort Lemhi, reclaim first land by irrigation in Idaho. In 1858 Bannock Indians attacked the Mormons at Fort Lemhi, killing two and driving the remaining back to Utah. Present day Tendoy Idaho and the birthplace of Sacahawea, on State 28 locate it.

Old Fort / Michael Kinville's Post / Fort Simons / Fort Wilson 
(1810 - 1812), Bonner's Ferry
A North West Company trading post.

Fort (John) Russell
(1877 - 1879), Moscow
One of several settlers' stockades created when the Nez Perce War broke out. This fort remained until 1879. Site located on B Street.

Fort (John) Saling
(1863), near Weiser
A settlers' fort on Mann Creek.

Fort Smith
(1849), Bern
A trading post on the Oregon Trail operated by mountainman "Peg Leg" Smith. Nearby in Montpelier is the National Oregon Trail Center.

John Reed's (Reid's)House/Post/Snake Fort
(1813 - 1814, 1819, 1836), near Parma
A winter trading post on the south-side of the mouth of the Boise River that was attacked by Indians. Also spelled Reid. Rebuilt by the North West Company in 1819. Snake Fort (1836), built the Hudson's Bay Co., was later erected on the site.

Fort (Jacob) Weiser
(1865), Weiser
A settlers' defense against Indians, located at the mouth of the Weiser River.

Teton Pass Camp
(1895), Victor
A temporary Federal post.

Post at Eagle Rock Bridge Gap
(1878), Idaho Falls
A temporary Federal post.

Camp Lander
(1865 - 1866), near Fort Hall
Located three miles southeast of Fort Hall (1) at the junction of the Salt Lake and Boise Roads to protect the Oregon Trail. Replaced by Fort Hall (3).

Major Howe's Camp
(1860), near Chubbuck
A temporary Federal encampment located on the Portneuf River.

Camp Conner
(1863 - 1865), Soda Springs
Built by CA Volunteers after the "Battle of Bear River" to protect a Mormon settlement. Located along the Oregon Trail east of town on the north bank of the Bear River.

Samuel Smith's Camp
(1864), Raft River
A temporary post near the mouth of the Raft River to protect the stage line.

Camp Reed
(1865 - 1866), Twin Falls
A temporary Federal post on Rock Creek to protect the stage line.

Camp Wallace
(1865), Soldier
A temporary Federal post located on Big Camas Prairie. Also called Cantonment Soldier.

Camp Buford
(1866), near Bruneau
A temporary Federal post to protect the stage line.

Camp Three Forks Owyhee
(1866 - 1871), Owyhee County
A Federal camp located on Soldier Creek at the southwest base of South Mountain (Mt. Winthrop) near the South Fork Owyhee River, about 35-40 miles south of Triangle. Originally named Camp Winthrop until 1867. Used as a prison camp for Indians. Buildings were sold at auction in 1871, later becoming a cattle ranch after 1884.
(additional info provided by Marshall Sitrin)

Camp Lyon
(1865 - 1869), near Jordan Valley, Oregon
An Oregon state militia camp located on Jordan Creek within one mile of the state line.

Camp Howard (a)
(1877 - 1881), Mount Idaho
A Federal camp located two miles east of town on the Clearwater River. Another Camp Howard (b) existed 16 miles south on Doumecq Plains near White Bird, and another Camp Howard (c) somewhere on the Lolo (Lewis & Clark) Trail near Weippe.

Camp Reynolds Creek
(1878), near Kooskia
A temporary Federal post on Maggie Creek.

Camp Chopunnish
(1806), East Kamiah
Also known as Long Camp, this is where the Lewis and Clark Expedition stayed until they could cross the snow-capped mountains on their return trip east.

Colt Killed Camp
(1805), near Powell
Located on US 12 eleven miles west of Lolo Pass. This is where Lewis and Clark had to kill one of their own colts for food.

Canoe Camp
(1805), Ahsahka
A campsite for the Lewis and Clark Expedition where they built canoes for their trip west to the Pacific.

Donald MacKenzie's Post
(1812 - 1813), Lewiston
Originally a Pacific Fur Co. trading post on the north-side of the Clearwater River, known as Clearwater Post. The North West Company bought out the Americans in 1813 after war broke out.
Lewis and Clark camped near here at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers in 1805.

Camp Osburn
(1899 - 1901), Osburn
A National Guard post created during a period of martial law. Replaced Camp Wardner.

Camp Wardner
(1899), Kellogg
A National Guard post established during a miners' strike. Replaced by Camp Osburn.

Skitswist Post
(1812), Kootenai County
A temporary Pacific Fur Co. trading post somewhere on Lake Coeur d'Alene.

David Thompson's Trading Post
(1809 - 1811), near East Hope
This was the first trading post in the state, built by the North West Company. Also known as Kullyspell House (also spelled Kalispell). It consisted of three log houses. Replaced by Spokane House in Washington. The site was discovered in 1923, and a monument built in 1929.

Camp Hope
(1894), Hope
A National Guard post established during railroad strikes.

Boise Barracks | Camp Boise | Fort Boise (1) | Fort Boise (2) | Camp Boise River | Fort Bonneville
Camp Buford | Canoe Camp | Camp Chopunnish | Clearwater Post | Camp Coeur d'Alene | Fort Coeur d'Alene
Colt Killed Camp | Camp Conner | Eagle Rock Bridge Gap Post | Evan's Post | Fort Franklin | Fort Galloway
Fort Hall (1) | Fort Hall (2) | Fort Hall (3) | Fort Hall (4) | Fort Henry | Henry's Post | Camp Hope
Camp Howard (a) | Camp Howard (b) | Camp Howard (c) | Howe's Camp | Howse Fort | Hull Hill Fort
Kalispell House | Kinville's Post | Kullyspell House | Camp Lander | Camp Lapwai | Fort Lapwai
Lapwai Mission Station | Fort Lemhi | Long Camp | Cantonment Loring | Camp Lyon | MacKenzie's Post
Old Fort | Camp Osburn | Camp Reed | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post
Camp Reynolds Creek | Fort Russell | Fort Saling | Fort Sherman | Fort Simons | Skitswist Post | Smith's Camp
Fort Smith | Snake Fort | Cantonment Soldier | Camp Stevenson | Teton Pass Camp | Thompson's Post
Camp Three Forks Owyhee | Camp Wallace | Camp Wardner | Fort Weiser | Fort Wilson | Camp Winthrop

Forts

Fort Boise (1) | Fort Boise (2) | Fort Bonneville | Fort Coeur d'Alene | Fort Franklin | Fort Galloway
Fort Hall (1) | Fort Hall (2) | Fort Hall (3) | Fort Hall (4) | Fort Henry | Howse Fort | Hull Hill Fort | Fort Lapwai | Fort Lemhi Old Fort | Fort Russell | Fort Saling | Fort Sherman | Fort Simons | Fort Smith | Snake Fort | | Fort Weiser | Fort Wilson

Posts

Clearwater Post | Eagle Rock Bridge Gap Post | Evan's Post | Henry's Post | Kinville's Post | MacKenzie's Post | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post | Skitswist Post | Thompson's Post

Camps

Camp Boise | Camp Boise River | Camp Bruneau | Camp Buford | Canoe Camp | Camp Chopunnish | Camp Coeur d'Alene | Colt Killed Camp | Camp Conner | Camp Hope | Camp Howard (a) | Camp Howard (b) | Camp Howard (c) | Howe's Camp | Camp Lander | Camp Lapwai | Long Camp | Camp Lyon | Camp Osburn | Camp Reed | Camp Reynolds Creek | Smith's Camp Camp Stevenson | Teton Pass Camp | Camp Three Forks Owyhee | Camp Wallace | Camp Wardner | Camp Winthrop

Cantonments

Cantonment Loring | Cantonment Soldier

Houses

Kalispell House | Kullyspell House | Reed's (Reid's) House/Post

Barracks

Boise Barracks

Stations

Lapwai Mission Station