August 03, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

I arrose early this morning and had the perogue and canoes loaded and set out at half after 6 A.M.  we soon passed the canoe of Colter and Collins who were on shore hunting, the men hailed them but received no answer we proceeded, and shortly after overtook J. and R. Fields who had killed 25 deer since they left us yesterday; deer are very abundant in the timbered bottoms of the river and extreemly gentle.  we did not halt today to cook and dine as usual having directed that in future the party should cook as much meat in the evening after encamping as would be sufficient to serve them the next day; by this means we forward our journey at least 12 or 15 miles Pr. day.  we saw but few buffaloe in the course of this day, tho' a great number of Elk, deer, wolves, some bear, beaver, geese a few ducks, the party coloured covus [The Black-billed Magpie, Pica Pica.], one Callamet Eagle [Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetos.], a number of bald Eagles [Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus.], red headed woodpeckers &c.  we encamped this evening on the N.E. side of the river 2 ms. above our encampment of the 12th of May 1805. [On the north side of the Missouri River below the mouth of Cattle Creek. This campsite is beneath Fort Peck Reservoir.]  soon after we encamp Drewyer killed a fat doe.  the Fieldses arrived at dark with the flesh of two fine bucks, besides which they had killed two does since we passed them making in all 29 deer since yesterday morning.  Collins and Colter did not overtake us this evening.

August 03, 1806
John Ordway

a fair morning.   we loaded the canoes and proced. on   Soon came to the Camp of the two Fields   they had killed 24 deer.   we procd. on verry well   Saw buffaloe in  a bundance [Lewis & Gass report seeing a few buffalo this day.] and Some white bear.   we Camped on N. S. [Below the mouth of Cattle Creek about two miles above the camp of May 12, 1805, now beneath Fort Peck Reservoir.]   having made 73 miles this day.

August 03, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had a fine morning, and at 6 o'clock got under way and proceeded on.  Having gone ten miles we came up with the hunters, who had killed twenty four deer.  We went on very rapidly and saw great gangs of elk feeding on the shores, but few buffaloe. [Ordway reports seeing buffalo "in a bundance".]  At sunset we encamped having gone 73 miles

August 03, 1806
William Clark

West   1/4 along the Std. Bluff
North   1 3/4 to the Lowr pat of the Std. Bluff. Comincment of a large timbered bottom Std   Passed an Island
N. 20o W.   3 1/2 m. to a Lard point   passed a Sand bar on Lard. and one below the Std. pont. bottoms of wood extince
N. 40o w.   2 miles to a Stard. point   passed a Deep bend to the Stard. an extencve Sand bar from the Lard
N.W.Point   1 1/2 miles to the Point at the junction of the Missouri   an extence Sand bar opposit on the Std sd

August 03, 1806
William Clark

last night the Musquetors was so troublesom that no one of the party Slept half the night.   for my part I did not Sleep one hour.   those tormenting insects found their way into My beare and tormented me the whole night.  they are not less noumerous or troublesom this morning.   at 2 miles passed the enterance of Jo. Field's Creek [Charbonneau Creek, ND.] 35 yds wide imediately above a high bluff which is falling into the river very fast.  on the Side of this bluff I saw Some of the Mountain Bighorn animals.  I assended the hill below the Bluff.  the Musquetors were So noumerous that I could not Shute with any Certainty and therefore Soon returned to the Canoes.   I had not proceeded far before I saw a large gangue of ewes & yearlins & fawns or lambs of the bighorn, and at a distance alone I saw a ram.  landed and Sent Labeech to kill the ram, which he did kill and brought him on board.  this ram is not near as large as maney I have Seen.    however he is Sufficiently large for a Sample   I directed Bratten to Skin him with his head horns & feet to the Skin and Save all the bones.  I have now the Skin & bone of a Ram and Ewe & a yearlin ram of those big Horn animals.  at 8. A.M. I arived at the Junction of the Rochejhone with the Missouri, and formed my Camp imediately in the point between the two river at which place the party had all encamped the 26th of April--1805.   at landing I observed Sevral Elk feeding on the young willows in the point among which was a large Buck Elk which I shot & had his flesh dryed in the Sun for a Store down the river.   had the Canoes unloaded and every article exposed to dry & Sun. Maney of our things were wet, and nearly all the Store of meat which had been killed above Spoiled. I ordered it to be thrown into the river.   Several Skins are also Spoiled which is a loss, as they are our principal dependance for Clothes to last us to our homes &c.

Course distance & Remarks Augt. 3rd 1806

West along the Stard. Bluff to a point opposit to a low extencive timbered bottom on the Lard Side   1/4
North to the lower part of the Stard. Bluff at the Commencement of a large timbered bottom.  passed an island   1 3/4
N. 20o W. to a Lard point   passed a large bar on the Lard Side, and one below the Stard. point bottoms on each Side extenciv & covered with wood   3 1/2
N. 58o W. to the junction of the Rochejhone with the Missouri, passed a Stard. point at 1 1/2 miles above which there is a deep bend to the Std. and an extenciv Sand bar from the above Lard. point.  also an extencive Sand bar below the Stard. point   2 1/2

Miles 

   8 

The distance from the Rocky Mountains at which place I struck the River Rochejhone to its enterance into the Missouri 837 Miles 636 Miles of this distance I decended in 2 Small Canoes lashed together in which I had the following Persons. John Shields, George Gibson, William Bratten, W. Labeech, Toust. Shabono his wife & child & my man York. The Rochejhone or Yellow Stone river is large and navagable with but fiew obstructions quite into the rocky mountains. and probably <to-head> near it's source.  The Country through which it passes from those Mounts. to its junction is Generaly fertile rich open plains the upper portion of which is roleing and the high hills and hill Sides are partially covered with pine and Stoney. The middle portion or from the enterance of Clarks Fork as low as the Buffalow Shoals the high lands Contain Some Scattering pine on the Lard. Side.  on the Stard. or S.E. Side is Some hills thickly Supplied with pine. The lower portion of the river but fiew pines are to be Seen the Country opens into extencive plains river widens and Contains more islands and bars; of corse gravel sand and Mud. The Current of this river may be estimated at 4 Miles and 1/2 pr. hour from the rocky Mts. as low as Clarks Fork, at 3 1/2 Miles pr. hour from thence as low as the Bighorn, at 3-- Miles pr. hour from thence as low as the Tongue river, at 2 3/4 Miles pr. hour from thence as low as Wolf rapid and at 2 1/2 miles pr. hour from thence to its enterance into the Missouri

The Colour of the Water differs from that of the Missouri it being of a yellowish brown, whilst that of the Missouri is of a deep drab Colour containing a greater portion of Mud than the <Missouri> Rochejhone.  This delighfull river from indain information has it's extreem sources with the North river in the Rocky mountains on the confines of New Mexico. [GM: The North River is the Rio Grande del Norte, whose sources in Colorado are hundreds of miles southeast of those of the Yellowstone and the Snake (the southerly branch of Lewis's River) in northwest Wyoming. The Willamette (Multnomah) heads in western Oregon. Biddle took extra notes on the Yellowstone's sources in conversation with Clark after the expedition.] it also most probably has it's westerly sources connected with [NB: those of] the Multnomah and those the main Southerly branch of Lewis's river while it's Easterly brances head with those of Clark's R. [Clark's Fork Yellowstone River; See July 24, 1806.] the bighorn and River Platte and may be said to water the middle portion of the Rocky Mountains from N W to S.E. for several hundred miles.  the indians inform us, that a good road passes up this river to it's extreem source from whence it is buta short distance to the Spanish Settlements. [The closest confirmed "Spanish Settlements" were in New Mexico, considerably farther than Clark was led to believe.]   there is also a considerable fall on this river within the mountains [NB: no] but at what distance from it's source we never could learn [The Falls of the Yellowstone are within Yellowstone National Park, south of Livingston, MT. where Clark first reached the Yellowstone River. It appears that Biddle did not believe "a considerable fall" existed.] like all other branches of the Missouri which penetrate the Rocky Mountains all that portion of it lying within those mountains abound in fine beaver and Otter, it's streams also which issuing from the rocky mountian and discharging themselves above Clark's fork inclusive also furnish an abundance of beaver and Otter and possess considerable portions of small timber in their vallies.  to an establishment on this river at clarks Fork the Shoshones both within and West of the Rocky Mountains would willingly resort for the purpose of trade as they would in a great measure be relived from the fear of being attacked by their enimies the blackfoot Indians and Minnetares of fort de Prarie, which would most probably happen were they to visit any establishment which could be conveniently formed on the Missouri. [The Missouri Fur Company led by Manuel Lisa built Fort Raymond (Fort Lisa, Fort Manuel Lisa) at the confluence of the Bighorn and Yellowstone Rivers in 1807.  This same company attemped to establish a trading post at the Three Forks of the Missouri in 1810 but was abandoned after intense hostility from the Blackfeet; See July 28, 1805.  In 1831 the American Fur Company established Fort McKenzie on the Missouri near the mouth of the Marias for the purpose of trading with the Blackfeet.] I have no doubt but the same regard to personal safety would also induce many numerous nations inhabiting the Columbia and Lewis's river West of the mountains to visit this establishment in preference to that at the entrance of Maria's river, particularly during the first years of those Western establishments.  the Crow Indians, Paunch Indians castahanah's and other East of the mountains and south of this place would also visit this establishment; it may therefore be looked to as one of the most important establishments of the westen fur trade.  at the entrance of Clark's fork there is a sufficiency of timber to support an establishment, an advantage that no position possesses from thence to the Rocky Mountains. The banks of the yellowstone river a bold not very high yet are not subject to be overflown, except for a few miles immediately below where the river issues from the mountain. the bed of this river is almost entirely composed of loose pebble, nor is it's bed interrupted by chains of rock except in one place and that even furnishes no considerable obstruction to it's navigation.  as you decend with the river from the mountain the pebble become smaller and the quantity of mud increased untill you reah Tongue river where the pebble ceases and the sand then increases and predominates near it's mouth.  This river can be navigated to greater advantage in perogues than any other craft yet it possesses suficient debth of water for battauxs [French bateau, generally larger and heavier than canoes. The name was generally for describing Keelless, flat-bottomed, plank craft with each end tapered, commonly forty feet in length. They were more mobile and lighter than a pirogue.] even to the mountains; nor is there any of those moving sand bars so formidable to the navigation of many parts of the Missouri. The Bighorn R and Clark's fork may be navigated a considerable distance in perogues and canoes. Tongue river is also navigable for canoes a considerable distance.

[That section above describing the Yellowstone River and repeated here is in Lewis's handwriting.]  ... to an establishment on this river at clarks Fork the Shoshones both within and West of the Rocky Mountains would willingly resort for the purposes of trade as they would in a great measure be relived from the fear of being attacked by their enimies the blackfoot Indians and Minnetares of fort de Prarie, which would most probably happen were they to visit any establishment which could be conveniently formed on the Missouri. I have no doubt but the same regard to personal safety would also induce many numerous nations inhabiting the Columbia and Lewis's river West of the mountains to vist this establishment in preference to that at the entrance of Maria's river, particularly during the first years of those Western establishments. ... it may therefore be looked to as one of the most important establishments of the western fur trade.