July 31, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

The rain still continuing I set out early and and proceeded on as fast as possible.   at 9 A.M. we fell in with a large herd of Elk of which we killed 15 and took their skins.  the bottoms in the latter part of the day became wider better timbered and abound in game.  the party killed 14 deer in the course of the day without attempting to hunt but little for them.  we also killed 2 bighorns and 1 beaver; saw but few buffaloe.  the river is still rising and excessively muddy more so I think than I ever saw it.  we experienced some very heavy showers of rain today.  we have been passing high pine hills all day.  late in the evening we came too on the N.E. side of the river and took she[l]ter in some indian lodges built of sticks, about 8 ms. below the entrance of North mountain creek. [Rock Creek; See May 24, 1805. The course of the Missouri has changed in this area.]  these lodges appeared to have been built in the course of the last winter.  these lodges with the addition of some Elk skins afforded us a good shelter from the rain which continued to fall powerfully all night.  I think it probable that the minnetare of Fort de Prarie visit this part of the river; we meet with their old lodges in every botton.--


1st a speceis of wild clover with a small leaf in blume.
3rd the turtle dove [The Mourning Dove.] lays it's eggs on the ground in these plains and is now seting, it ahs two eggs only and they are white.
5th a great number of pigeons breeding in this part of the mountains musquetoes not so troblesome as near Clark's river.  some ear flies [Probably Deer Fly, Chrysops.] of the common kind and a few large horse flies. [Horse Fly, Tabanus.]
6th the last night cold with a very heavy dew.
7 a cloud came on about sunset and continued to rain moderately all night.  rained at 3 P.M.
8th heavy white frost last night.  very cold.
9th rained slightly last night.  air cold.   rained constantly all day  air extreemly cold  it began to rain about 8 A.M. and continued with but little intermission all day  in the evening late it abated and we obtained a view of the mountains we had just passed  they were covered with snow apparrently several feet deep which had fallen during this day.--
10th rain ceased a little after dark.
11th wind very hard in the latter part of the day
12th wind violent all last night and today untill 5 P.M. when it ceased in some measure
16th Saw the Cookkoo or rain crow and the redheaded woodpecker. [Red-Headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus.] the Golden Rye [Unknown species of Elymus.] now heading.   both species of the prickly pare [ See Lewis's entry of July 10, 1806.] in blume.--  the sunflower in blume.
17th wind violent all day.  distant thunder last evening to the West.
23rd a distant thundercloud last evening to the west.   mountains covered with snow.
24th a violent gust of thunder Lightning last evening at 6 P.M.  rain and wind all night untill this evening with some intervales.
25th rained and wind violent all day and night.
26th wind violent  rain continues
28th a thundershower last night from N.W. but little rain where we were.  heavey hail storm at 3 P.M.  the prickly pear has now cast it's blume
29th heavey rain last night, continued with small intervales all night
30th rained almost without intermission
31st    do     do      do     do

July 31, 1806
John Ordway

cloudy and rain.   we Set out as usal and procd. on verry well   at 9 Saw large gangs of Elk Swimming the River   we killed 15 of them mearly for the hides to cover our Canoes. Jo. Fields killed one Ibex   the hunters killed 14 deer and one beaver this day.   had Several Showers of rain.   the River verry muddy owing to the heavy rains washling those Clayey hills   came a long days roeing and Camped [Eight miles below the mouth of Rock Creek.] at some old Indn. lodges on N. Side.--

July 31, 1806
Patrick Gass

We set out early, though it continued at intervals to rain hard; about 10 o'clock we saw a great gang of elk on a small island, where we halted and in a short time killed fifteen of them. We took the skins and the best parts of the meat, and proceeded. At noon we halted to dine, and had then a very heavy shower of rain. We also killed another of the Large horned animals or mountain sheep.--We remained here about an hour, then proceeded on, and will soon be clear of this range of high rough country. In our way this afternoon, we killed two mule and twelve other deer, and two beaver. Though the afternoon was wet and disagreeable, we came 70 miles to day. [Eight miles below the mouth of Rock Creek, MT according to Lewis's account.]

July 31, 1806
William Clark

S 80o E   1 1/2 Miles to a Stard. Bluff in a bend    low bluff on the Lard Side
N. 28o W.   1/2 a mile   passed wolf rapid which is not bad   high bluff on the Std side
N. 80o W.   2 1/2 to a high bluff under very high hills or low mountans on the Lard Side opsd. a point on which there is wood
N. 10o E   1 mile to the enteran of a dry brook Lard. passing under a high Bluff of diferent Colour on th Lard Side   high Prarie on Std.
East   1 to a Lard point at a fiew trees.
N. 55 E.   3 miles to a Lard. point   passed a Std. point at 1 mile   high cole blufs on [larboard?]
N E.   1 1/2 miles to a red bluff on Lard Side    passed Std point
East   6 miles to a Stard Bend   passed 2 Lard. and a Stard point low bluff Std.  passed a river 100 yards wide on the Lard Side.   water Shallow & muddy--
N 60o E.   3 <1 1/2> miles to an Isld. on a Stard point    passed a <brook in the Lard Bend> a Stard. point and a Lard point
N. 30o E   2 miles to the enterance of a river in the Stard. Bend 40 yds wide deep Coal R [O'Fallon Creek.] Banks of Coal below its enterance
N. 10o W.   1 1/2 miles to a high bluff on Lard Side
East   2 1/2 to the enterance of a Brook below a Lard. Bluff    passed a Std. point   passed under a high bluff Lard. Slipping in to R.
S. E.   1 mile to a Lard. point
N.E.   6 <5?> miles to the head of a Isld. near an Id. Std. Sid   low Coal Bluff on Stard Side   passed a Brook on Stard side
N. 20o E.   4 miles to the enterance of a brook in the Lard Bend opposit an island on the Stard Side
N. 70o E.   3 Miles to the lower part of Stard Bluff    passed an Small island at the enterance of a river 60 yds. wide deep    banks on each Side
N. 30o W   3 miles to a Lard. Bluff opposit a Stard. point.
N. 80o E   6 <5?> miles to the enterance of a Creek oppst on the Stard Side passed a brook below the Lard. Clifts at 1 mile   one on the Std. at 3 miles  a Island Close to the Stard Side at 2 miles
N. 12o E   3 miles t the lower part of a Stard. Bluff in the bend opsd. an island
N. 70o w   1 1/2 miles to the lower point of a Island    passed a <Creek on Lard.> Several Sand bars.  1 single
N. 5o W.   2 1/2 miles to a tree in the Lard Side on a low bluff opsd. to an a low timbered bottom below a Brook

July 31, 1806
William Clark

I was much disturbed last night by the noise of the buffalow which were about me. one gang Swam the river near our Camp which alarmed me a little for fear of their Crossing our Canoes and Splitting them to pieces. Set out as usial about Sun rise   passed a rapid which I call wolf rapid [Near the mouth of Conns Coulee, approximately four miles southwest of Terry, MT.] from the Circumstance of one of those animals being at the rapid.  here the river approaches the high mountainious Country on the N W. Side. [This includes Little Sheep and Big Sheep mountains.]   those hills appear to be composed of various Coloured earth and Coal without much rock   I observe Sevral Conical pounds [NB: mounds] which appear to have been burnt.  this high Country is washed into Curious formed mounds & hills and is cut much with reveens.  the Country again opens and at the distance of 23 miles below the Redston or War-har-sah River [Powder River; See July 30, 1806.] I landed in the enterance of a Small river [O'Fallon Creek about one mile west of Fallon, MT. Both the creek and town are named after Benjamin O'Fallon, trader, Indian agent, and nephew of William Clark. On Clark's map it is referred to as "Oak Tar pon er River" and "Coal River"; the latter is the name used in both sets of courses and distances, but not in the text of the journal.]   on the Stard. Side 40 yards wid Shallow and muddy.  it has lately been very high.  haveng passed the Enterance of a River on the Lard Side 100 yards wide which has running water. [Cherry Creek a short distance below Terry. Called "Shabonas River" on Clark's map after Toussaint Charbonneau, husband of Sacajawea.]  this river I take to be the one the Menetarries Call little wolf or Sa-a-shah [NB: Shah] River   The high Country is entirely bar of timber.  great quantities of Coal or carbonated wood is to be seen in every Bluff and in the high hills at a distance on each Side. Saw more Buffalow and Elk and antilopes this evening than usial.  18 Miles below the last river on the Stard. Side, I passed one 60 yards wide which had running water.  this Stream I call oak-tar-pon-er or Coal <R> River [Not the same stream which bears this name in Clark's courses and distances nor on his map. This is Cabin Creek, "Gibsons deep river" on Clark's map.] has very steep banks on each side of it.   passed Several large Brooks [Cherry, Cabin, and Cedar Creeks.]   Some of them had a little running water, also Several Islands   Some high black looking Bluffs and encamped on the Stard. Side on a low point. [Approximately seven miles southwest of Glendive, MT.]   the country like that of yesterday is open extencive plains.  as I was about landing this evening Saw a white bear and the largest I ever Saw eating a dead buffalow on a sand bar.  we fired two Shots into him, he Swam to the main Shore and walked down the bank. I landed and fired 2 more Shots into this tremendious animal without killing him.  night comeing on we Could not pursue him he bled profusely. Showers all this day.

Course distance and Remarks 31st July 1806

N. 80o E. to a Bluff in a Stard. Bend   passed a Low Bluff on the Lard. Side   1 1/2
N. 28o W. to a high Bluff on the Stard Side.  passed wolf rapid (not bad)   1/2
N. 80o W. to a Bluff under a very high rugid hill or low Mtn. on the Lard. Side  opposit a timbered point   2 1/2
N. 10o E. to the enterance of a dry brook [Difficult to identify unless Clark meant to say "larboard" in which case it could be Lost Boy Creek, approximately five miles west of Terry; it is a nameless stream on Clark's map but shown among the "High broken Hills" below Wolf Rapid.] on Stard. Side passed under a high <range> Bluff of different coloured earth on the Lard. Side.  high prarie on the Stard. Side   1
East to a Lard point at a fiew Cotton wood trees   1
N. 55o E. to a Lard. point.  passed a Stard. point at 1 mile high Coal bluffs on the Lard Side   3
N. 45o E. to a red bluff on the Lard. Side.  passed a Std. point   1 1/2
East to a Stard. Bend   passed two Lard. and one Stard. point   passed a river 100 yards wide on the Lard Side. Shallow and the water muddy. low Bluffs. Shabono R.   6
N. 60o E. to an island close to the Stard. point    passed a Std point and a Lard point   river narrow   3
N. 30o E. to the enterance of a river in the Stard. Bend 40 yds. wide   Steep Coal banks on each Side of this little river.  about 4 feet deep & muddy. Coal river. [In Clark's courses and distances and on his map this river is referenced as "Coal River" and "Oak Tar pon er" which are all O'Fallon Creek; in the journal entry it is "Cabin Creek."]   2
N. 10o W. to a high bluff on Lard. Side (rugid)   1 1/2
East to the enterance of a brook [Possibly Hatchet Creek; "Dry Brook" on Clark's map.] below the Lard. Bluff. passed a Stard point.  also a high Bluff on the Lard. side laterly sliped into the river   2 1/2
S. 45o E. to a Lard. point   1
N. 45o E. to the head of an island near the Stard Side.   low coal bluffs on Stard Side.  passed a Brook [Difficult to identify unless Clark is referring to the larboard side, then it might be Bad Route Creek. Howerver, a "Dry Brook" appears on the starbaord side on Clark's map.] on Stard. Side   6
N. 20o E. to the enterance of a brook [Cracker Box Creek.]  in the Lard Bend oposit to an island near the Stard. Side   4
N 70o E to the lower part of a Stard. Bluff at the enterance of a river [Cabin Creek, the "Oak-tar-pon-er or Coal River" of Clark's journal entry.] 60 yards wide with deep banks on each Side gibsons R    passed a Small island.  river muddy & Shallow   3
N. 30o W. to a Lard Bluff opsd. a Stard point   3
N. 80o E. to the enterance of a creek [Cedar Creek, "Cat fish Creek" on Clark's map.] below a Stard Bluff opposit to an island.  passed a brook on Lard Side at 1 mile   one on Stard at 3 miles and an island Close to the Stard Side at 2 miles   6
N. 12o E. to the lower part of a Stard. Bluff in a bend opposit to an island   3
N. 70o W to the lower point of an island   psd. Sand bars in different parts of the river   1 1/2
N. 5o W. to a Single tree on a low Lard Bluff below the enterance of a Brook [Whoopup Creek, an unnamed stream opposite to the camp of this day on Clark's map.] on the Lard Side. Encamped opposit on the Stard Side 2 1/2




1st a Species of wild Clover in blume
2nd Musquetors very troublesom
3rd Cap L. & my Self part at Travellers rest.
4th a worm day. I saw a Speces of Honeysuckle [Possibly Orange Honeysuckle.] with a redish brown flower in blume
5th Cool night. Some dew this morning     the nights are Cool.  the musquetors are troublesome untill a little after dark when the air become Cool and Musquetoes disappear.
6th cold night with frost. I slept cold under 2 blankets on head of Clarks river. I arived in an open plain in the middle of which a violent Wind from the N W. accompanied with hard rain which lasted from 4 untill half past 5 P.M.   quawmash in those plains at the head of wisdom River is just begining to blume and the grass is about 6 inches high.
7th Saw a blowing Snake. [Probably Western Hog-Nosed Snake, Heterodon nasicus.]   a violent rain from 4 to 1/2 past 5 last evening & Some rain in the latter part of last night.  a small Shower of rain at 4 this morning accompanied with wind from the S.S.W.
8th a Small Shower of rain a little after dark    a heavy rain and wind from S W. at 4 P.M yesterday    a heavy Shower of rain accompanied with rain from the S W. from 4 to 5 P M.  passed the boiling hot Springs emerced 2 peces of raw meat in the Spring and in 25 Minits the Smallest pece was sufficiently cooked and in 32 the larger was also sufficiently cooked
9th hard frost. Some ice this morning.  last night was very Cold and wind hard from the N E. all night. The river is 12 inches higher than it was last Summer when we made the deposit here and portage from this place.   more Snow on the adjacent mountains than was at that time.
10th white frost this morning.  ice 3/4 of an inch thick on Standing water.  grass killd by the frost.  river falling proceviable.  a large white frost last night.  the air extreemlly Cold. Ice 3/4 of an inch thick on Standing water.
11th frost this morning.  goslin nearly grown   fishing hawks [Osprey, Pandion haliaetus.] have their young  The yellow Currant nearly ripe.  a Slight frost last night.  the air Cool.  the Musquetors retired a little after dark, and did not return untill about an hour after Sunrise.
12th wisdom river is high but falling. Pricly pears in blume
14th Saw a Tobaco worm [Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.]  shown me by York
15th Struck the river Rochejhone 120 yds wide    water falling a little
16th Saw the wild indigo & common sunflower
17th Heavy showers of rain   Hard Thunder & Lightning last night a heavy Shower of rain accompanied with hail Thunder and Lightning at 2 a.m. with hard wind from the S W.  after the Shower was over it Cleared away and became fair.
18th yellow, purple, & black Currents ripe and abundant
19th Saw the lst Grape vine of the dark purple kind    the grape nearly grown
20th Sworms of grass hoppers have eaten the grass of the plains for many miles.  The River Rochejhone falls about 1/2 an in in 24 hours and becoms much Clearer than above. The Grass hoppers are emencely noumerous and have distroyed every Species of grass from one to 10 Miles above on the river & a great distance back.
21st river falls a little and the water is nearly Clear
22nd raind Slightly last evening about dark with hard winds Thunder & lightning  a fiew drops of rain last night at dark.  the Cloud appd. to hang to the S W, wind blew hard from different points from 5 to <7> 8 P M which time it thundered and Lightened. The river by 11 a.m. to day had risen 15 inches, and the water of a milky white Colour.
23rd violent wind last night from S W. The river has fallen within the last 24 hours 7 inches.  the wind was violent from the S W for about 3 hours last night from the hours of 1 to 3 A.M.
24th Violent wind last night.  river falling a little  Since the last rise it had fallen 13 inches.  river falling a little   it is 6 feet lower than the highest appearance of it's rise. Rained from 3 to 4 P M but Slightly.  the wind violent from the S. W.  (Sgt. Pryor crossd and Set out for the Mandans.[)]
25th rained from 3 to 4 P M yesterday but Slight.   rained Several Showers  Several Showers of rain with hard windfrom the S and S W the fore part of the day.  the brooks on each Side are high and water muddye
26th a Slight Shower this morning with hard wind from the S. W.  The river falling, but very Slowly 1 inch in 24 hs.
27th Saw a flight of gulls , a Small rattle Snake [Probably the Prairie Rattlesnake.]   Several flocks of Crows [American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos.] & black burds. [Unable to identify for lack of sufficient description.]
28th a fiew drops of rain this morning a little before day light.  river Still falling a little   Bratten Coet [caught] a beaver   Labeech Shot 2 last evenig.  I saw a wild Cat [Bobcat, Lynx rufus.]  lying on a log over the water.
29th a fiew drops of rain accompanied with hard Claps of Thunder and Sharp Lightning last night   wind hard from the N.E.
30th Great number of Swallows, they have their young.   Killed 1s black tail deer.  young gees beginning to fly   a Slight Shower of rain accompanied with thunder and lightning. Several Showers in the course of this day.  it cleared away in the evening and became fair   river falling a little. Great quantities of Coal apper in the bluffs on either Side. Some appearance of Burnt hills at a distance from the river.
31st rained only a fiew drops last night.  a Small Shower to day.  wind hard from the N E   The wind blew ahrd and it was Showery all day tho not much rain.  the clouds came up from the W. and N W frequently in course of the day.