July 30, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

The rain still continued this morning it was therefore unnecessary to remain as we could not dry our baggage   I Consequently set out early as usual and pursued my rout downwards.  the currant being strong and the men anxious to get on they plyed their oars faithfully and we went at the rate of about seven miles an hour.  we halted several times in the course of the day to kill some bighorns being anxious to procure a few more skins and skeletons of this animal; I was fortunate enough to procure one other malle and female for this purpose which I had prepared accordingly.  seven others were killed by the party also 2 buffaloe one Elk 2 beaver with & a female brown bear with tallons 6 1/4 inches in length.  I preserved the skin of this bear also with the tallons; it was not large and in but low order.  we arrived this evening at an island about 2 ms. above Goodriches Island and encamped on it's N. E. side. [The map places Lewis's campsite on Goodrich's Island, below the campsite of May 25, 1805.   Ordway and Gass say the camp was on the island. Lewis's entry places the site on the upriver side of the sharp bend above Goodrich's Island. The location is below Cow Creek and Cow Island Crossing.]    the rain continued with but little intermission all day; the air is cold and extreemly disagreeable.  nothing extraordinary happened today

July 30, 1806
John Ordway

cloudy and wet.   we Set out eairly and proceeded on verry well    our hunters killed 2 buffaloe   I and willard killed a white bear. Some of the hunters killed 4 Ibex and 2 beavers.   rained all day. Camped on an Island.-- [Lewis, in contrast to Ordway and Gass, places the camp above a nameless island a few miles below Cow Creek.]

July 30, 1806
Patrick Gass

We embarked early in a cloudy morning with some rain. In our way through this high range of mountains, we killed four more of the large horned animals, two buffaloe, two beaver and a bear.

The water of the river is very thick and muddy, on account of the late falls of rain, which wash those clay hills very much. We went down the river upwards of 70 miles to day, and encamped on a prairie island. [Both Ordway and Gass disagree with Lewis regarding the location of this campsite. Lewis would have it a few miles below Cow Creek. Ordway and Gass place it on Goodrichs Island.] Heavy rain fell at intervals during the day.

July 30, 1806
William Clark

N. 14o W.   3 miles to a Lard Bluff   passed an Island and 2 gravelly bars
N. 40o E   6 miles to the enteranc of a dry Brook with Stard. Bend Passed the enteranc of a river 100 yds wide below the Lard. Bluff at 5 miles. som wood on this river.  (rained)
N. 30o W   1 3/4 miles to a tree in Lard bend
N 60o E.   1 1/4 miles to a Bluff in a Stard. bend    passed a Shoal 2/3 across th river from the Lard. Side
North   1 1/2 mile to 3 trees in a Lard. bend    passed a large dry Creek on the Stard. at 1/2 a mile 80 yds
N 70o E   4 miles to the point of a Clift on the Stard. Side    opposit to the great Shoal quite across the riv   rock dark brown Sand.  this may be run with ease and Safty in a large Canoe
N E.   3 mils to a bush in a naked point on the Lard Side    passed a large dry brook on each Side   low Bluff on the Stard. Side
N. 20o E   1 mile to the head of an Island   low bluff on Std.  no wood on either side   Passed a Brook on Stard. Side
N. 10o W.   2 1/2 miles to the enterance of a large dry Creek on the Lard Side above a bluff   passed 1 on the Stard.
N 70o E   1 mile to Brook on the Stard Bend    passed a high bluff on the Lard. for 1/2 ml.
North   1 1/2 miles to the enteranc of a <large> small dry Creek in the Lard. Bend near a high Bluff
N. 20o E   1 mile to a large dry Brook in Std. bend
N. 5o W.   2 miles the Center Lard Bend   rocks on both Sides in the bottom but little wood
N. 30o E.   2 miles to a Stard. point
East   2 miles to a Stard Bend   passd. a Brook on each Side but little wood
N. 20o E.   1 1/2 miles on the Stard. Bend   passed a Brook on Stard Side low bluff Lard.
North   1 <2> 1/2 miles to a few bushes in a Lard Bend
N. E   1 miles to a Brook which discharges itself on the Stard. Side in the Center of a rapid I call Bear rapid   not bad   a god Chanel on the Lard. Side
N. W   3.4 of a m. to a bluff in the Lard Bend    passed a dry river 88 yds chanel and nearly 1/4 of a mile when high--
N.E.   2 <3> 1/4 miles to a Bluff in a Stard. Bend    passed a bar on Stard. point
North 4 <5> 1/2 miles   passed a low bluff on each Side a <large Brook> at 3 River 100 yards wide Shallow & very muddy    I take this to be the [blank] River, it discharges a great deel of mud and red stones   has latterly been high--   at 4 ms. passed large dry Brook a Lard. low bluff on each side.

July 30, 1806
William Clark

Set out early this morning   at 12 miles arived at the Commencement of Shoals the Chanel on the Stard Side near a high bluff.  passed a Succession of those Shoals for 6 miles the lower of which was quit across the river and appeared to have a decent of about 3 feet.  here we were Compeled to let the Canoes down by hand for fear of their Strikeing a rock under water and Splitting. This is by far the wost place which I have Seen on this river from the Rocky mountains to this place   a distance of 694 miles by water.  a Perogu or large Canoe would with Safty pass through the worst of those Shoals, which I call the Buffalow Sholes [Buffalow Shoals are just below the mouth of Sand Creek, "Little dry River" on Clark's map.] from the Circumstance of one of those animals being in them.  the rock which passes the river at those Sholes appear hard and gritty of a dark brown Colour.  the Clifts on the Stard. Side is about 100 feet in hight, on the Lard Side the Country is low and the bottom rises gradually back.  here is the first appearance of Birnt hills which I have Seen on this river they are at a distance from the river on the Lard Side. I landed at the enterance of a dry Creek [Muster Creek near Kinsey; it appears on Clark's map as "Dry creek."] on the Lard side below the Shoals and took brackfast.   Those Dry Rivers, Creeks &c are like those of the Missouri which take their rise in and are the Conveyance of the water from those plains.  they have the appearanc of dischargeing emence torrents of water.  the late rains which has fallen in the plains raised Sudenly those Brooks which receive the water of those plains on which those Suden & heavy Showers of rain must have fallen, Several of which I have Seen dischargeing those waters, whiles those below heading or takeing their rise in the Same neighbourhood, as I passed them appears to have latterly been high.  those Brrods discharge emencely of mud also, which Contributes much to the muddiness of the river.   after Brackfast proceeded on   the river much narrower than above    from 3 to 400 yards wide only and only a fiew scattering trees to be Seen on the banks.  at 20 miles below the Buffalow Shoals passed a rapid which is by no means dangerous, it has a number of large rocks in different parts of the river which Causes high waves   a very good Chanel on the Lard. Side.  this rapid I call Bear rapid [Bear Rapid is above the mouth of Custer Creek, MT.] from the Circumstance of a bears being on a rock in the Middle of this rapid when I arived at it.   a violent Storm from the N.W. obliged us to land imediately below this rapid, draw up the Canoes and take Shelter in an old Indian Lodge above the enterance of a river which is nearly dry   it has laterly been very high and Spread over nearly 1/4 a mile in width.  its Chanel is 88 yards and in this there is not more water than could pass through an inch auger hole. I call it Yorks dry R. [Custer Creek.]   after the rain and wind passed over I proceeded on at 7 Miles  passed the enterance of a river [Powder ("War har sah") River.] the water of which is 100 yds wide, the bead of this river nearly 1/4 of a mile   this river is Shallow and the water very muddy and of the Colour of the banks a darkish brown.  I observe great quantities of red Stone thrown out of this river that from the appearance of the hills at a distance on its lower Side induced me to call this red Stone river. [NB: By coincidence I found the Indian name Wa ha Sah] [The Indian name is "War-rah-sash" probably learned from the Mandans or Hidatsas. Biddle suggests the translation is "red stone river" but it is closer to a Mandan word meaning "powder."]  as the water was disgreeably muddy I could not Camp on that Side below its mouth.  however I landed at its enteranc and Sent out and killed two fat Cows, and took as much of the flesh as the Canoes would conveniently Carry and Crossed the river and encamped at the enterance of a Brook on the Lard. Side under a large Spredding Cotton tree. [This camp was below and opposite the mouth of Powder River ("War har sah"), at the mouth of Crooked Creek.]  The river on which we passed to day is not So wide as above   containing but fiew islands with a Small quantity of Cotton timber.  no timber of any kind to be Seen on the high lands on either Side.

Course distance and Remarks 30th July

N. 32o E. to the lower part of a wood in the Stard. Bend opposit the head of an island near the Lard Side   2/1/2
N. 14o W. to a Lard. Bluff   passed an island and 2 bars   3
N. 40o E. to the enterance of a dry brook [Jones Creek just above Tusler. On Clark's map it is unnamed and opposite the mouth of Sunday Creek ("Big dry River").] in the Stard Bend passed the enterance of a [EC: Dry] river [Sunday Creek ("Big dry River") and shown as 125 yards wide on Clark's map.] below the Lard Bluff 100 yards wide nearly dry at 5 miles on this River   there appears to be Some Cotton wood   6
N. 30o W. to a tree in the Lard. Bend   1 3/4
N. 60o E. to a Bluff in the Stard. Bend   pass a rocky Shoal 2/3 of the river from the lard Side   1 1/4
North to 3 trees in the Lard Bend   passed a large dry Creek 60 yards wide on the Stard. side [An unknown stream, unless Clark meant "larboard", in which case it could be Sand Creek above Buffalo Shoals, "Little dry River" on Clark's map.]   1 1/2
N. 70o E. to the point of a clift on the Stard. Side opposit to the great Shoal.  a dark brow rock quit across   passeable   4
N. 45o E. to a bush on the Lard point   passed a dry brook [EC: Sand Cr.] on each side. [Muster Creek on the larboard and Dixon Creek on the starboard. They are"Dry creek 40 yards wide" and "dry brook," on Clark's map.]  a low bluff on the Stard. Side   3
N. 20o E. to the head of an island.  passed a brook [Deep Creek.] on the Stard. Side and a low bluff, no wood on either Side   1
N. 10o W. to the enterance of a large dry Creek [EC: Muster Cr.] [Harris Creek west of Shirley.] on the Lard. Side above a bluff.  passed one on the Stard. Side [Hay Creek, opposite and above Harris Creek.]   2 1/2
N. 70o E. to a Brook [Dead Horse Creek, empties into Buffalo Rapids Ditch.]  in the Stard. Bend   passed a high bluff on the Lard. Side for 1/2 a mile   1
North to the enterance of a Small dry Creek [Cabin Creek.] in the Lard Bend near a high bluff   1 1/2
N. 20o E. to a large dry brook [EC: Cottonwood] [Cottonwood Creek, meeting the Yellowstone south of Bonfield.] in a Stard. Bend   1 1/2
N. 5o W. to the Center of a Lard. Bend rocks on both Sides   2
N. 30o E. to a Stard. point   2
East to a Stard. Bend passed a dry brook [EC: Wolf Cr (N.)] [Mack Creek on the starboard and unnamed on the larboard.] on each Side   2
N. 20o E. to a hollow in the Stard. Bend    passed a Brook [Williams Creek.] on the Stard. Side.   low bluffs [EC: Devil's Backbone] [A name used at that time for the larboard bluffs.] on the Lard. Side   1 1/2
North to a fiew bushes in a lard. Bend   1 1/2
N. 45o E. to a Brook [Camp Creek nearly opposite the mouth of Custer Creek ("Yorks dry River" on Clark's map.] which discharges itself on the Stard. Side at white Bear island rapids.  not bad   1
N. 45o W. to a Bluff in the Lard. Bend, below the enterance of a dry river [EC: York's] 88 yard Chanel, and when it is high spreads over nearly 1/4 of a mile in width   York   3/4
N. 45o E. to a Bluff in the Stard. Bend   passed a bar Std. pt.   2 1/4
North to the Center of a Lard. bend   low bluffs on each Side at 3 miles   passed redstone river [EC: Powder R.] on the Stard. Side 100 yards water & near 1/4 of a mile Chanel very muddy; at 4 Miles encamped at the enterance of a large dry brook on the Lard.    4 1/2 



In the evening below the enterance of redstone river I observed great numbers of Buffalow feeding on the plains, elk on the points and antilopes. I also Saw Some of the Bighorn animals at a distance on the hills.  Gibson is now able to walk, he walked out this evening and killed an antilope.