July 16, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

I dispatched a man early this morning to drive up the horses as usual, he returned at 8 A.M. with one of them only.  allarmed at this occurrence I dispatched one of my best hands on horseback in surch of them he returned at 10 A.M. with them and I immediately set out.  sent Drewyer and R. Fields with the horses to the lower side of Medecine river, and proceeded myself with all our baggage and J. Fields down the missouri to the mouth of Medecine river in our canoe of buffaloe skins.  we were compelled to swim the horses above the whitebear island and again across medicine river as the Missouri is of great width below the mouth of that river.  having arrived safely below Medicine river we immediately sadled our  horses and proceeded down the river to the hanssom fall [Rainbow Falls; See June 14, 1805.] of 47 feet where I halted about 2 hours and took a haisty sketch of these falls; in the mean time we had some meat cooked and took dinner after which we proceeded to the grand falls [Lewis camped on the north side of the Missouri River at the Great Falls.] where we arrived at sunset.  on our way we saw two very large bear on the opposite side of the river.  as we arrived in sight of the little wood below the falls we saw two other bear enter it; this being the only wood in the neighbourhood we were compelled of course to contend with the bear for possession, and therefore left our horses in a place of security and entered the wood which we surched in vain for the bear, they had fled.  here we encamped and the evening having the appearance of rain made our beds and slept under a shelving rock.   these falls have abated much of their grandure since I first arrived at them in June 1805, the water being much lower at prese[n]t than it was at that moment, however they are still a sublimely grand object.  I determined to take a second drawing of it in the morning.  we saw a few buffaloe as we passed today, the immence hirds which were about this place on our arrival have principally passed the river and directed their course downwards.  we see a number of goats or antilopes always in passing through the plains of the Missouri above the mandans.  at this season they are thinly scattered over the plains but seem universally distributed in every part; they appear very inquisitive usually to learn what we are as we pass, and frequently accompany us at no great distance for miles, frequently halting and giving a loud whistle through their nostrils, they are a very pretty animal and astonishingly fleet and active.  we spend this evening free from the torture of the Musquetoes.  there are a great number of geese which usually raise their young above these falls about the entrance of Medicine river  we saw them in large flocks of several hundred as we passed today.  I saw both yesterday and today the Cookkoo [Either the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, or the Black-billed Cuckoo, C. erythropthalmus. The range of the former does extend well beyond the Rockies to the west.] or as it is sometimes called the rain craw.  this bird is not met with west of the Rocky Mountains nor within them.--

July 16, 1806
Patrick Gass

There was a fine morning. We collected our horses, of  which Capt. Lewis took six and left four to haul the canoes and baggage over the portage; and then started to go up maria's river with only three hunters. We [With Gass were Frazier, Goodrich, McNeal, Thompson and Werner.] continued here to repair our waggons or truckles to transport the baggage and canoes on when the men with them should arrive.--  The musquitoes are still very troublesome

When Capt. Lewis left us, he gave orders that we should wait at the mouth of Maria's river to the 1st of Sept. at which time, should he not arrive, we were to proceed on and join Capt. Clarke at the mouth of the Yellow-stone river, and then to return home: but informed us, that should his life and health be preserved he would meet us at the mouth of Maria's river on the 5th of August.

July 16, 1806
William Clark

N 80o E   9 miles to a bluff in a bend right  the general course of the river very Straight passed a <great number of> Several Islands   the most of them covered with Cottonwood and Willer  The Trees too Small for Canoes.  passed a large Creek from the right which I call [blank] Creek  (11 ms)
N. 10o W.   1 miles to a bend on the right side  (1)
N. 50o E   1 1/2 Miles to a <bluff> Clift of rocks in a bend on the right Side-- (2 M)
N. 10o E   2 1/2 Miles to a bend to the left opsd. a large Island   main Channel on the right  Dined on the Isld.  killd a fat Buffalow & saw 2 w[hite] Bear.  a gange of Elk 200 & a gang of Antelopes wild gees &c &c.  (4 Ms)
N. 46o E   4 1/2 miles to a N W bend of the river at which place there is a very inconsiderable rapid under a low Clift of rocks on the N W side, passed a branch at 2 miles and one on the S E. Side of the river at 3 miles.  river making a genl. bend to the S.E.--  W[ater] 7 <6 1/2>
N. 60o E   4 miles to Some high trees in a bend to the S E Side  passed a drean N.W. Side  high land on the S.E. Side a Short distance from the river.  the first 2 ms of this cours a low Bluff on the N W. Side.  by water 6 m
North   2 1/2 Miles to the bend under a low bluff on N W. Side   Buffalow Crossing just above  passed 2 dreans on N W Side  an extensive low bottom on the S E. Side 3 or 400 B or Elk in it  (4)
N: 40o E   1 Mile to the enterance of a small Creak on the N W Side  below which I encamped opposit to a Small Island by water 1 mile only   Labiech killed an Elk. L. brought me a Small fish 8 ins long formed like a trout.   the mouth placed like a Sturgion with a red Streak down each side from the gills to the tail

July 16, 1806
William Clark

I gave Labeech promission to proceed on early <in> this morning a head and kill a fat Elk or Buffalow.  our horses haveing rambled to a long distance down the river detained us much later than Common.  we did not Set out untill 9 A M.  we had not proceeded on far before I saw a buffalow & Sent Shannon to kill it  this buffalow provd. to be a very fat Bull  I had most of the flesh brought on an a part of the Skin to make mockersons for Some of our lame horses.   proceeded on down the river without finding any trees Sufficiently large for a Canoe about 10 Miles and halted having passed over to an Island on which there was good food for our horses to let them graze & Dine.  I have not Seen labeech as yet.  Saw a large gangue of about 200 Elk and nearly as many Antilope  also two white or Grey Bear in the plains, one of them I Chased on horse back about 2 miles to the rugid part of the plain where I was compelled to give up the Chase  two of the horses was So lame owing to their feet being worn quit Smooth and to the quick, the hind feet was much the worst.  I had Mockersons made of green Buffalow Skin and put on their feet which Seams to releve them very much in passing over the Stoney plains.   after dinner I proceeded on   Soon after I had set Out Labeech joined us with part of a fat Elk which he had killed.  I passed over a Stoney point at which place the river runs Close to the high land on the N W. side   crossed a small Creek and Encamped on the river a little below its' Enterance. [On the north side of the Yellowstone just below the mouth of Little Timber Creek.] Saw emence heards of Elk feeding on the opposit side of the river. I saw a great number of young gees in the river.  one of the men brought me a fish of a species I am unacquainted; it was 8 inches long formed like a trout.   it's mouth was placed like that of the Sturgeon  a red streak passed down each Side from the gills to the tail. [Mountain Sucker, Catostomus platyrhynchus.]   The rocks which the high lands are faced with and which may also be seen in perpendicular Straters in the high plains, is a dark freestone. the greater part of this rock is of an excellent grit for Grindstones hard and sharp. observe the Silkgrass [Probably Hemp Dogbane. See Lewis's entry of July 20, 1806.] Sunflower [See Lewis's entry of July 20, 1806.] & Wild indigo [Neither False Indigo, Amorpha, nor the Wild False Indigo, Baptesia, as neither are know to this area. Clark is probably referring to a species of Milkvetch, Astragalus, or of Locoweed, Oxytropis, possibly Purple Locoweed, O. lambertii.] all in blume.  but fiew other flowers are to be Seen in those plains.  The river and Creek bottoms abound in Cotton wood trees, tho' none of them Sufficiently large for Canoes.  and the current of the Rochejhone is too rapid to depend on skinn canoes.  no other alternetive for me but to proceed on down untill I can find a tree Sufficiently large &c. to make a Canoe. --

Courses Computed distance by land and Water Down the River Rochejhone from the Rocky Mountain in Latd. 45o 22 ' 30" North and Longtd [blank] W. July 15 & 16th 1806 [Clark's courses and distances from the East Gallatin River down the Yellowstone; the "Rocky Mountain" here is more specifically the Bridger Range.]

North   2 miles on a direct Course from the gap of the mountain to a fiew Cotton trees under the bank and on the west or Larboard Side of the river & on a Small Chanel.  I marked my name withe red paint and the day of the month & year also the distance & course of the portage on one of the Cotton trees.   wide bottom on the Lard Side, the high Slopeing Prarie on the Stard Side   3 1/2
North   1 Mile to a cluster of trees in a Gully.   passed some tall timber laterly killed by fire in the low bottom.  the high bottom appear to have been over flown   2 1/2
N. 15o E.   4 Miles to a deep bend of the river to the West passed two Small runs and a large island on which I Saw Some trees nearly large enough for Small canoes.  main chanel on the East of the island.  passed 11 Islands in this Course, the two lower of them large the others Small   7
N. 30o E.   2 Miles to the enterance of Shield-- River of 35 yds. wide deep & a boald Current with a great perpotion of timber on its borders. this river is from the N W. much beaver sign.  a high rugid rocky hill buts the river imediately below a very good buffalow road passing from the head of this river through a gap of the Mts. to the Missouri   3
N. 50o E   3 Miles passing a high rocky hill on the Lard. Side, to the enterance of a Small Creek on the Lard. Side  passd. Several Small islands.  an extensive low bottom on the Stard. Side in which there is great nos. of Elk feeding. [EC: Camp July 15]   5
N. 80o E.   9 Miles to a Bluff in a Stard. bend.  the general course of the river very Streight passing Several islands, Most of them Covered with Cotton trees and willow.  passed Stinking Cabin Creek 20 yards wide bold current from which falls in on the Stard Side. Timber up this Cree as far as I could see [EC: July 16th]   11
N. 10o W   1 Miles on the Course to a bend on the Stard. side   1
N. 50o E.   1 1/2 Miles to a Clift of rocks in a bend to the Stard. side passing Some Small Islands   2
N. 10o E.   2 1/2 Miles on the Course to a Stard. Bend opsd. a large iland.  main Chanel on the Stard. Side   4
N. 46o E.   4 1/2 Miles on the Course to a Lard Bend of the river at which place there is Some rocks in the middle of the river near a low Clift of rocks on the Lard. Side passing a branch at 2 miles, and one on the Stard. Side at 3 miles.   river having a Genl. bend to the S.E.   7
N. 60o E.   4 Miles on the Course to Some high trees in a Std. bend.  passing under a low bluff on the Lard. side for 2 ms. the high lands on the opposit Side Seperated from the river by a narrow low bottom passed several small islands.   6 1/2
N.   2 1/2 Miles on the Course to a low bluff in a Lard. bend below a great Crossing place of the buffalo. passed two Brooks on the Lard. side.   an extensive low bottom on the Stard. side in which I saw great numbers of Elk feeding.   4
N. 40o E   1 Mile on the Course to the enterance of a Small Creek on the Lard. Side below which I encamped below a Small Island in a Small bottom in which there was good grass   1 1/2
Miles by land   38 

Miles by water

  58 

July 16, 1806
John Ordway

a fair morning.  we took an eairly breakfast and proceeded on verry well.   the wind rose a head and blew so high about noon that obledged us to lay too near the gates of the rockey Mountains [about 5 3/4 miles midway between Holter and Houser dams, the party passed here on the outbound journey on July 19, 1805]   Collins killed a large beaver   we gathered a little pitch for our canoes &C about 3 P.M. the wind abated a little and we proced. on thro the gates of the mn    Saw large gangs of Mountain Sheep and Elk   Collins killed a faun Elk and two Mountain Sheep.   we proceeded on below ordways river [Little Prickly Pear Creek] and Camped on a Sand beach. Same Side.--