May 06, 1806
This morning the husband of the sick woman was as good as his word, he produced us a young horse in tolerable order which we immediately killed and butchered. the inhabitants seemed more accomodating this morning; they sold us some bread. we received a second horse for medicine and prescription for a little girl with the rheumatism. Capt.C. dressed the woman again this morning who declared that she had rested better last night than she had since she had been sick. sore eyes is an universal complaint with all the natives we have seen on the west side of the Rocky mountains. Capt. C. was busily engaged for several hours this morning in administering eye-water to a croud of applicants. we once more obtained a plentifull meal, much to the comfort of all the party. I exchanged horses with We-ark-koomt and gave him a small flag with which he was much gratifyed. the sorrel I obtained is an eligant strong active well broke horse perfictly calculated for my purposes. at this place we met with three men of a nation called the Skeets-so-mish [The Skitswish, a Salishan-language people now known as the Coeur d'Alenes (From the French for Pointed Hearts). They lived in the vicinity of the Coeur d'Alene River which flows into Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho; from the lake issues the Spokan River, that River runs into the Columbia in eastern Washington, well to the south of the entrance of the Pend d'Oreille (Clark's) River. Both the Spokan River and the Pend d' Oreille River had a falls a short distance below their mouth. Therefore if the reference is to the latter Kootenai Indians they may be those referenced by Clark rather than the Coeur d'Alenes or the Spokans. A problem in translation may have arisen here; Clark refers to the same river as a "small" river which runs into the Columbia south of the Clark's River. To further confuse matters, on his 1810 map of the West Clark shows a large lake, "Wayton Lake," in approximately the proper region (perhaps based on Indian informtion about both Coeur d'Alene and Pend d' Oreille Lakes), from which "Lautaw River" runs into Clark's River. The Skeetsomish are shown living on another river to the southwest of the lake, and that river runs into the Lautaw.] who reside at the falls of a large river disharging itself into the Columbia on it's East side to the North of the entrance of Clark's river. this river they informed us headed in a large lake in the mountains and that the falls below which they resided was at no great distance from the lake. these people are the same in their dress and appearance with the Chopunnish, tho their language is intirely different a circumstance which I did not learn untill we were about to set out and it was then too late to take a vocabulary. The river here called Clark's river is that which we have heretofore called the Flathead river, [The combination of the present Bitterroot, Clark Fork, and Pend d' Oreille Rivers in western Montana, northern Idaho, and northeastern Washington. They had apparently decided by this time to give it that name.] I have thus named it in honour of my worthy friend and fellow traveller Capt. Clark. for this stream we know no indian name and no white man but ourselves was ever on it's principal branches. the river which Fidler calls the great lake river [The "Great Lake River" appears on Aaron Arrowsmith's map of 1802, based on information from Peter Fidler. It headed near the Saskatchewan and ran into Mackenzie's "Tacoutche-Tesse" River, which was assumed to be the Columbia or a major tributary thereof. No known river really matches the description] may possibly be a branch of it but if so it is but a very inconsiderable branch and may as probably empty itself into the Skeetssomish as into that river. the stream which I have heretofore called Clark's river [Deschutes River in Oregon, here renamed the "towannahiooks."] has it's three principal sources in mountains Hood, Jefferson & the Northern side of the S. W. Mountains and is of course a short river. this river I shall in future call the To-wannahiooks river it being the name by which it is called by the Eneshur nation. The Kooskooske river may be safely navigated at present all the rocks of the shoals and rapids are perfectly covered; the current is strong, the water clear and cold. this river is rising fast.-- The timber of this river which consists principally of the long leafed pine commences about 2 miles below our present camp on Colter's Creek. it was two oclock this evening before we could collect our horses. at 3 P.M. we set out accompanyed by the brother of the twisted hair and We arkkoomt. I directed the horse which we had obtained for the purpose of eating to be led as it was yet unbroke, in performing this duty a quarrel ensued between Drewyer and Colter. we continued our march this evening along the river 9 miles to a lodge of 6 families, built of sticks mats & dryed hay in the same form of those heretofore discribed. we passed a lodge of 3 families at 4 ms. on the road. no provision of any discription was to be obtained of these people. a little after dark our young horse broke the rope by which he was confined and made his escape much to the chagrine of all who recollected the keenness of their appetites last evening. the brother of the twisted hair and Wearkkoomt with 10 or 12 others encamped with us this evening.-- [It is possible that this camp was located below a large island, probably Fir Island, which is two miles below Pine Creek]
the natives have a considerable salmon fishery up Colter's Creek. this stream extends itself to the pirs of the rocky mountains and in much the greater part of it's course passes through a well timbered pine country it is 25 yds. wide and discharges a large body of water. the banks low and bed formed of pebbles.-- had a small shower of rain this evening.--
May 06, 1806
This morning the Husband of the Sick woman was as good as his word. he produced us a young horse in tolerable order which we imedeately had killed and butchered. the inhabitents Seemed more accommodating this morning. they Sold us some bread. we received a Second horse for Medecine & procription to a a little girl with the rhumitism whome I had bathed in worm water, and anointed her a little with balsom Capivia. [An oleoresin obtained from South American trees of the genus Copaifera; it stimulates the mucous membranes.] I dressed the woman again this morning who declared that She had rested better last night than She had Since She had been sick. Sore Eyes is an universal Complaint among all the nations which we have Seen on the West Side of the rocky Mountains. I was busily imployed for several hours this morning in administering eye water to a Croud of applicants. we once more obtained a plentiful meal, much to the Comfort of all the party. Capt. Lewis exchanged horses with We ark koomt and gave him a small flag with which he was much pleased and gratifyed. the Sorrel which Cap L. obtained is a Strong active well broke horse--. At this place we met with three men of a nation Called the Skeets-so-mish who reside at the falls of a Small river dischargeing itself into the Columbia on its East Side to the South of the enterance of Clarks river. this river they informed us headed in a large lake in the mountains and that the falls below which they reside was at no great distance from the lake. these people are the Same in their dress and appearance with the Chopunnish, tho' their language is entirely different. one of them gave me his whip which was a twisted Stick 18 Ins. in length at one end a pice of raw hide Split So as to form two Strings about 20 inches in length as a lash, to the other end a String passed through a hole and fastened each end for a loope to Slip over the wrist. I gave in return for this whip a fathom of narrow binding. The River here Calld. Clarks river is that which we have heretofore Called Flathead river. Capt. Lewis has thought proper to Call this after myself for this Stream we know no indian name and no white man but our Selves was ever on this river. The river which Fiddler call's the great Lake river may possiably be a branch of it, but if So it is but a very inconsiderable branch, and may as probably empty itself into the Columbia above as into Clarks river. the Stream which the party has heretofore Called Clarks river imedeately above the great falls, has it's three principal branches in Mountains Jefferson, Hood and the Northern Side of the S. W. Mountains and is of course a Short river. this river is Called by the Skillutes & Eneshure Nations Towannahhiooks which is also the name they Call those bands of Snake indians who Come on this river every Spring to Catch the Salmon--. The Kooskooske river may be Safely navigated at present all the rocks of the Sholes and rapids are perfectlly Covered; the Current is Stong, the water Clear and Cold. this river is riseing fast--. The timber of this river which consists principally of the long leafed pine which commences about 2 miles below our present encampment on Colters Creek. it was 2 P M. this evening before we could collect our horses. at 3 P M. we Set out accompanied by the brother of the twisted hair and We-ark-koomt. we derected the horse which I had obtained for the purpose of eateing to be led as it was unbroke, in performing this duty a quarrel ensued between Drewyer and Colter--. We Continued our march along the river on its North Side 9 miles to a lodge of 6 families built of Sticks mats and dryed Hay. of the Same form of those heretofore discribed. we passed a Lodge of 3 families at 4 ms. on the river, no provisions of any discription was to be obtained of these people. a little after dark our young horse broke the rope by which he was Confined and made his escape much to the chagrine of all who recollected the keenness of their appetites last evening. the brother of the twisted hair & wearkkoomt with 10 others encamped with us this evening--.
The nativs have a Considerable Salmon fisher up Colters Creek. this Stream extends itself to the Spurs of the Rocky Mountain and in much the greater part of its Course passes through a well timbered pine Country. it is 25 yds. wide and discharges a large body of water. the banks low and bead formed of pebbles--. had a Small Shower of rain this evening. The Chopunnish about the Mouth of the Kooskooske bury their dead on Stoney hill Sides generally, [This varies from Clark's earlier description of Nez Perce burial farther down the Snake, See October 11, 1805.] and as I was informed by an Indian who made Signs that they made a hole in the Grown by takeing away the Stones and earth where they wished to deposit the dead body after which they laid the body which was previously raped in a robe and Secured with Cords. over the body they placed Stones So as to form a Sort of arch on the top of which they put Stones and earth So as to Secure the body from the wolves and birds &c. they Sometimes inclose the grave with a kind of Sepulcher like the roof of a house formed of the canoes of the disceased. they also Sacrifice the favorite horses of the disceased. the bones of many of which we See on and about the graves.
May 06, 1806
a rainy wet morning the natives brought us the young horse they promised to give us last night which we excepted and Shot him to eat, as some of the men are gitting Sick eating roots. Several of the natives gambled in the same way as those below had buffaloe robes war axes &C. Staked up the war axes these Indians have they got from the Grousevauntares on the Missourie & they got them from us at the Mandans. [These Gros Ventres are the Hidatsas; see Ordway October 29,1804 & Lewis May 11, 1806] about noon we Set out proceeded on up the river pasd. a large lodge, Some part of the road is rockey & rough in the evening we Camped [On the Clearwater River] near a Small village. the big horn chief and a number other Indians Camped with us.--
May 06, 1806
There was a cloudy wet morning; and we stayed in our camp. Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke acted as physicians to the sick of the village or lodge, for which they gave us a small horse, that we killed and eat, as we had no other meat of any kind. We continued her until about 3 o'clock, when we started and went on about nine miles, and encamped close to a lodge of the natives