October 21, 1805
a verry Cold morning we Set out early wind from the S W. we Could not Cook brakfast before we embarked as usial for the want of wood or Something to burn.--
South 3 miles to a Lard Bend S 55o W. 17 miles to a Lard Bend below a bad rapid high ruged rock Passed a Small Island at 2 1/2 miles one at 4 miles, in th middle of the river, at Smome Swift water an Indn Camp of 8 Lodges on the Std. Side opsd. th Lower point where we Brackfast, and bought Some fine fish & Pounded rotes. people well disposed passed a rapid at 10 miles. Rocks out in the water passed a Stard. point & a Strd. point at 15 [miles] passed 5 Lodges of Indians, & 2 Lodges Some distance above on Std. N. 45o W. 4 miles to a Stard. bend passd. the lower pt. of the isd. at 1 mile and 2 Lodges of fishers below on the Stard Side, the rocks on th Lard. appear as if Sliped from the Clifts under which they are passed emence rocks in differt. parts of the river which were large and too noumerous to notice. Fowl of all kinds more plentiful than above passed a verry bad rapid at 2 miles, this rapid is Crouded with Islands of bad rocks dificuelt & crooked passage 2 Lodges of Indains below on Std. Side. I Saw Some fiew Small Pine on the tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollers S. 60o W. 5 miles to the Stard. Bend. passed maney ruged black rocks in diffierent parts of the river, and a bad rapid at 2 miles & river narrow Several Canoes loaded with Indians (Pierce noses) came to See us-- <To> at the expiration of this course a river falls in on the Lard. 40 yds. wide Islands of rocks in every direction in the river & rapids S. 53o W. 13 miles to upr. point of a rocky Island 80 feet high a rapid above passed the little river rapid thro narrow channels between the rocks 4 Lodges of Indians on the Stard. Side opposit, a round toped mountain imediately in front and is the one we have been going towards & which bore S. W. from the 2d course below the Forks-- passed the lower point of an Island on the Stard. at 2 miles landed at 5 Lodges of Pierced noses Indians at 4 miles where we encamped and purchased a little wood to boil our Dogs & fish, those Indians are the <inhabitents> relations of the falls below, fortunately for us the night was worm. 42
22d Octr. Course Continued
[In Clarks journal there is the number "33" by the total of "42" representing the actual miles traveled that day, that is, four instead of thirteen on the last course.]
fine water for 7 miles passed a rapid of rocks neaerly across above which at 6 miles passed 6 Lodges Std., at 9 miles passed a Bad rapid, & Lodges of Indians on Std. Side 20 piles [one word illegible] of fish on an Island drying, Several Indains in Canoes fishing in Canos & gigs &c.
Collins made some excellent beer of the Pasheco quar mash bread of roots which was verry good. obliged to purchase wood at a high rate. [Above this sentence in Clarks journal is a sketch map showing the camp of October 21, 1805, and the return camp of April 21, 1806 (misidentified as April 23). The entrances of the John Day and Deschutes rivers are also shown, but the streams are not named.]
last night we could not collect more dry willows the only fuel, than was barely Suffi[ci]ent to cook Supper, and not a sufficency to cook brackfast this morning,
October 21, 1805
A verry cool mmorning wind from the S. W. we Set out verry early and proceeded on, last night we could not Collect more dry willows the only fuel, than was barely Suffient to cook Supper, and not a Sufficency to cook brackfast this morning, passd. a Small Island at 5 1/2 miles a large one 8 miles in the middle of the river, Some rapid water at the head and Eight Lodges of nativs opposit its Lower point on the Stard. Side, we came too at those lodges, bought some wood and brackfast. Those people recived us with great kindness, and examined us with much attention, their employments custom Dress and appearance Similar to those above; Speak the Same language, [Referred to as "Met-cow-wes" on Clark's map and in entries on the return journey on April 24, 1806, they may have been the Methows, although those spoke a Salishan language, not the Shahaptian of the people upstream. They lived between the present towns of Rossevelt and Blalock, Washington. The Shahaptian term mitxaw designates a Salish-speaking group closely associated with the Columbia and Okanagan rivers.] here we Saw two Scarlet and a blue cloth blanket, also a Salors Jacket The Dress of the men of this tribe only a Short robe of Deer or Goat Skins, and that of the womn is a Short piece of Dressed Skin which fall from the neck So as to Civer the front of the body as low as the waste, a Short robe, which is of one Deer or antilope Skin, and a flap, around their waste and Drawn tite between their legs as before described, their orniments are but fiew, and worn as those above.
we got from those people a fiew pounded rotes [roots] fish and Acorns of the white oake, those Acorns they make use of as food, [raw & roasted] and inform us they precure them of the nativs who live near the falls below which place they all describe by the term Timm-- [The Chinookan term tmm is derived from the Chinook jargon, meaning "(river) falls."] at 2 miles lower passed a rapid, large rocks Stringing into the river of large Size, opposit to this rapid on the Stard. Shore is Situated two Lodges of the nativs drying fish here we halted a foew minits to examine the rapid before we entered it which was our constant Custom, and at all that was verry dangerous put out all who Could not Swim to walk around, after passing this rapid we proceeded on passed anoothe rapid at 5 miles lower down, above this rapid on <the Stard. Side> five Lodges of Indians fish &c. [These two groups of lodges are located near the mouth of present Rock Creek, shown entering from the north in the upper right hand corner of Clark's map. This was the location of a Umatilla village named k ami tp ("opening through the canyon where light penetrates"). The location marked the downriver boundary of the Umatilla Indians where over one hundred persons lived. It was a popular area because wood was plentiful. Extensive archaeological work has been done on the opposite (Oregon ) shore in this area.] above this rapid maney large rocks on each Side at Some distance from Shore, one mile passed an Island Close to the Stard. Side, below which is two Lodges of nativs, a little below is a bad rapid which is bad crouded with hugh rocks S attered in every Direction which renders the pasage verry Difficuelt a little above this rapid on the Lard. Side emence piles of rocks appears as if Sliped from Clifts under which they lay, passed great numbers of rocks in every direction Scattered in the river 5 Lodges a little below on the Stard. Side, and one lodge on an Island near the Stard. Shore opposit to which is a verry bad rapid, thro which we found much dificuelty in passing, the river is Crouded with rocks in every direction, after passing this dificult rapid to the mouth of a Small river on the Larboaard Side 40 yards wide descharges but little water at this time, and appears to take its Sourse in the Open plains to the S. E. [The John Day River, Oregon. It is "River de Page" and "River La Page" on Clark's map, after member Jean Baptiste LePage.] from this place I proceved Some fiew Small pines on the tops of the high hills and bushes in the hollars. imediately above & below this little river comences a rapid which is crouded with large rocks in every direction, the pasage both crooked and dificuelt, we halted at a Lodge to examine those noumerous Islands of rock which apd. to extend maney miles below,--. great numbs. of Indians came in Canoes to View us at this place, after passing this rapid which we accomplished without loss; <we passed> winding through between the hugh rocks for about 2 miles--. (from this rapid the Conocil mountain is S. W. which the Indians inform me is not fare to the left of the great falls; this I call the Timm or falls mountain it is high and the top is covered with Snow) [Mt. Hood; see October 18, 1805.] imediately below the last rapids there is four Lodges of Indains on the Stard. Side, proceeded on about two miles lower ande landed and encamped near five Lodges of nativs, drying fish those are the relations of those at the Great falls, they are pore and have but little wood which they bring up the river from the falls as they Say, we purchased a little wood to cook our Dog meat and fish; those people did not recive us at first with the same cordiality of those above, they appeare to be the Same nation Speak the Same language with a little curruption of maney words Dress and fish in the Same way, ["Wah-how-pum" on Clark's map. A small Shahaptian-language group living near the mouth of Olive Creek in Klickitat County, Washington.] all of whome have pierced noses and the men when Dressed ware a long taper'd piece of Shell or beed put through the nose-- [The shell belongs to a marine mollusk of the genus Dentaliium, resembling a miniature elephant tusk, much used by tribes as far east as the Great Plains for decoration.] this part of the river is furnished with fine Springs which either rise high up the Sides of the hills or <out> on the bottom near the river and run into the river. the hills are high and rugid a fiew scattering trees to be Seen on them either Small pine or Scrubey white oke.
The probable reason of the Indians residing on the Stard. Side of this as well as the waters of Lewis's River [The phrase "waters of Lewis's" appears to have been substituted for some erased words.] is their fear of the Snake Indians who reside, as they nativs Say on a great river to the South, [Possibly the Deschutes River or John Day River; These "Snakes" are probably Northern Paiutes.] and are at ware with those tribes, <our to> one of the Old Chiefs who accompanies us pointed out a place on the lard. Side where they had a great battle, not maney years ago, in which maney were killed on both Sides--, one of our party J. Collins presented us with Some verry good beer made of the Pa-shi-co-quar-mash bread, which bread is the remains of what was laid in as [a part of our] Stores of Provisions, at the first flat heads or Cho-pun-nish Nation at the head of the Kosskoske river which by being frequently wet molded & sowered &c. we made 33 miles to day. [Camp was in the vicinity of the present John Day Dam.]
October 21, 1805
a clear cold morning. we Set out eairly and proceeded on as usal we then halted at an Indian village where we bought a little wood and cooked breakfast. bought Some pounded Sammon from the natives, and Some white root cakes which is verry good. we Saw among them a number of fisher and rackoon Skins. [Fisher, Martes pennanti; Raccoon, Procyon lotor] Some otter Skins also. these Savages gave us any thing we asked them for, by our giving them any Small artidle as we pleased, as if they were in fear of us. we proceeded on passed River hills and cliffs of rocks on each side. passed over a number of bad rockey rapids where the River is nearly filled with high dark couloured rocks the water divided in narrow deep channels, bad whorl pools. passed several Islands and fishing camps. Saw a great quantity of pounded Sammon Stacked up on the Shores. we Saw a fiew Scattering pine on the hills. we came about 32 miles this day and Camped [Near John Day Dam] at some Indian lodges close under high clifts of rocks on the Stard Side a handsome Spring flowed out of the clifts. these Savages have a fiew Elk and Deer Skins dressed with the hair on which they wear for covering. they have also a fiew blue cloth blankets &C--
October 21, 1805
We continued our voyage at an early hour, and had a fine morning. At 10, we came to the lodges of some of the natives, and halted with them about 2 hours. Here we got some bread, make of a small white root, which grows in this part of the country. We saw among them some small robes made of skins of grey squirrels, some racoon skins, and acorns, which are signs of a timbered country not far distant. Having proceeded on again, we passed several more lodges of Indians; and through two very rocky rapid parts of the river with great difficulty. We went 32 miles and encamped at some Indian lodges, where we procured wood from the natives to cook with.
October 21, 1805
a clear cold morning. we Set out eairly and proceeded on as usal, untill about 8 oClock at which time we halted at an Indian Camp where we bought Some wood and cooked breakfast. bought Some pounded fish from the Natives and Some roots bread which was made up in cakes in form of ginger bread and eat verry well. Saw a nomber of Rackoon Skins also otter and fisher Skins &c. [Raccon, Procyon lotor; River Otter, and Fisher, Martes pennanti.] they have us any thing we asked for by our giving a Small article we pleased. we proceeded on passed clifts of rocks and River hills on each Side passed over Several verry bad rockey rapids, where the River was nearly filled with high rocks of a dark coulour, and the water divided in narrow deep channels, where we ran through verry fast high waves and whorl pools below. passd. Several Islands and fishing Camps where the natives had a large quantity of pounded fish the best of their Sammon pounded up and put up in small Stacks along the Shore for winter, & cover them with Straw and pile the Stone around them. the Solid clifts continue on each Side. Saw a little Scattering pine timber on the hills on each Side of the River. Some places the rocks are high and Steep. we went about 32 miles and Camped [Near John Day Dam] at Some Indian Camps on the Stard. Side. a handsom Spring run from a clift of rocks near our Camp. we bought Some wood from the Natives to cookwith these natives appeer to be mostly covd. in deer and Elk Some rabit & Squerrel Skins. they have Some blew Cloth blankets &. we passed a Small River [John Day River. It was named "River La Page" by the party for member Jean Baptiste Lepage. This last sentence appears to be squeezed in between entries.] which came in on the Lard. Side
October 21, 1805
A clear cold morning. We set out early, and proceeded on as usual, untill about 8 oClock A.M. when we halted at an Indian Camp, lying on the River side, & bought some wood, with which we cooked breakfast, We also purchased from those Indians some punded fish, and root bread, made up in the form of ginger bread, which eat very well. We also saw among these Indians, Raccoon, Otter, fisher & a number of other kinds of small Skins, These Indians behaved very kind to us, they gave us any article that we asked for which they had among them, by our giving them any small article ever so trifling we pleased; & seemed very well pleased with us. We proceeded on down the River, & passed Clifts of rocks, & hills, which lay near the river on both sides of it. We also passed over several very bad rockey rapids, where the River was nearly filled with Rocks, which were high & of a dark Colour, & the Water divided into narrow Channels. We ran with our Canoes through those Channels very fast, the Waves at the place run high, & whirl pools lay below the Rocks, which made it extreamly dangerous for us to pass.-- We continued on, and passed several Islands & fishing Camps, where the natives had large Quantities of ounded fish. The Natives dry & pound the best of their fish which they put up in small stacks, along the River shores for winter, & cover them over with Straw and pile Stones up high round them.-- The Solid clifts of rocks continue along each side of the River. We saw some scattering pine trees growing on the hills on both sides of the River, & the Rocks are steep & high-- We passed a small River which lay on the South side of the River which we called Baptiste River & We came about 32 Miles this day & encamped near some Indian Camps, which were Inhabited by a number of Indians; lying on the North side of the River. We found near to our Camp, a handsome spring of water which ran from under some Clifts of rocks. We purchased from those Indians some wood to Cook with. These Natives were chiefly <covered> Cloathed with deer & Elk skins, which they dress into leather. They had also some Rabbit, & squirrel skins among them.-- We also saw with them blue Cloth & blankets, Our Course continues nearly West.--