| August 01, 1805
At half after 8 A.M. we halted for breakfast and as had been previously agreed on
between Capt. Clark and myself I set out with 3 men in quest of the Snake Indians.
the men I took were the two Interpreters Drewyer and Sharbono and Sergt. Gass who by an
accedental fall had so disabled himself that it was with much pain he could work in the
canoes tho' he could march with convenience. the rout we took lay over a rough high
range of mountains on the North side of the River. the rive entered these
mountains a few miles above where we left it. [The Bull Mountain; the river runs
through between the Bull and Tobacco Root mountains.] Capt Clark
recommended this rout to me from a belief that the river as soon as it past the mountains
boar to the N. of W. he having a few days before ascended these mountains to a position
from which he discovered a large valley passing betwen the mountains and which boar
to the N. West. this however proved to be the inlet of a large creek which
discharged itself into the river just above this range of mountans, ["R.
Fields Creek," for Reubin Field of the party, now Boulder River.] the river
bearing to the S.W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout. as soon
as we discovered our mistake we directed our ourse to the river which we at length gained
about 2 P.M. much exhausted by the heat of the day the roughnes of the road and the want
of water. the mountains are extreemly bare of timber and our rout lay through the
steep valleys exposed to the heat of the sun without shade and scarcely a breath of air;
and to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11 miles I had taken a doze of glauber
salts in the morning in consequence of a slight desentary with which I had been afflected
for several days; being weakened by the disorder and the opperation of the medecine I
found myself almost exhausted before we reached the river. I felt my sperits much revived
on our near approach to the river at the sight of a herd of Elk of which Drewyer and
myself killed two. we then hurried to the river and allayed our thirst. I ordered
two of the men to skin the Elk and bring the meat to the river while myself and the other
prepared a fire and cooked some of the meat for our dinner. we made a comfortable
meal of the Elk and left the ballance of the meat on the bank of the river the party with
Capt. Clark. this supply was no doubt very acceptable to them as they had had no
fresh meat for near two days except one beaver Game being very scarce and shy. we
had seen a few deer and some goats but had not been fortunate enough to kill any of them.
after dinner we resumed our march and encamped about 6 m. above the Stard side of
the river. [Somewhere above the present village of Cardwell.]
August 01, 1805
This morning we set out early and proceeded on tolerably well untill 8 OC'k. by which
time we had arrived within a few miles of a mountain through which the river passes.
we halted on the Stard. side and took breakfast. after wich or at 1/2 after 8
A.M. as had been previously concerted betwen Capt. Clark and myself I set out with three
men in surch of the Snake Indians or Sosonees. our rout lay over a high range of
mountains on the North side of the river. Capt C. recommended this rout to me no doubt
from a beleif that the river as soon as it passed this chain of mountains boar to the N.
of W he having on the 26th ult. ascended these mountains to a position from whence he
discoved a large valley passing between the mountains which boar to the N.W. and presumed
that the river passed in that direction; this however proved to be the passage of a large
creek which discharged itself into the river just above this range of mountains, the river
bearing to the S.W. we were threfore thrown several miles out of our rout. as soon
as we discovered our error we directed our course to the river which we at leength gained
about 2 P.M. much exhausted by the heat of the day, the roughness of the road and the want
of water. the mountains are extreemly bare of timber, and our rout lay through the
steep and narrow hollows of the mountains exposed to the intese heat of the midday sun
without shade or scarcely a breath of air: to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11
miles, I had taken a doze of glauber salts in the morning in consequence of a slight
disentary disorder and the operation of the medicine I found myself almost exhausted
before we reached the river. I felt my sperits much revived on our near approach to the
river at the sight of a herd of Elk, of which Drewyer and myself soon killed a couple.
we then hurryed to the river and allayed our thirst. I ordered two of the men to
skin the Elk and bring the meat to the river, while myslef and the other prepared a fire
and cooked some of the meat for our dinner. we made a comfortable meal on the Elk,
and left the ballance of the meat and skins on the bank of the river for Capt. Clark and
party. this supply will no doubt be acceptable to them, as they had had no fresh
meat when I left them for almost 2 days except one beaver; game being very scarce and shy
above the forks. we had seen a few deer and antelopes but had not been fortunate
enough to kill any of them. as I passed these mountains I saw a flock of the black
or dark brown phesants; [The first description of the Blue Grouse, Dendragapus
obscurus. Lewis uses the Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus for comparison.]
the young phesant is almost grown we killed one of them. this bird is fully a third
larger than the common phesant of the Atlantic states. it's form is much the same.
it is booted nearly to the toes and the male has not the tufts of long black
feathers on the sides of the neck which are so conspicuous in thise of the Atlantic.
their colour is a uniform dark brown with a small mixture of yellow or yelloish
brown specks on some of the feathers particfularly those of the tail, tho' the extremities
of these are perfectly black for about one inch. the eye is nearly black, the iris
has a small dash of yellowish brown. the feathers of the tail are reather longer
than that of our phesant or pattridge as they are Called in the Eastern States; are the
same in number or eighteen and all nearly of the same length, those in the intermediate
part being somewhat longest. the flesh of this bird is white and agreeably flavored.
I also saw near the top of the mountain among some scattering pine a blue bird [The
first description of thePinyon Jay, Gymnorhinus cyanopephalus. The American
Robin, Turdus migratorius and the Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata are used
for comparison.] about the size of the common robbin. it's action and form
is somewhat that of the jay bird and never rests long in any one position but constantly
flying or hoping from sprey to sprey. I shot at one of them but missed it. their
note is loud and frequently repeated both flying and when at rest and is char ah',
char'ah, char ah', as nearly as letters can express it. after dinner we resumed our
march and my pack felt much lighter than it had done about 2 hours before. we
traveled about six miles further and encamped on the stard. bank of the river, making a
distance of 17 miles for this day. the Musquetoes were troublesome but I had taken
the precaution of bringing my bier.
Shortly after I left Capt. Clark this morning he proceed on and passed through the
mountains; they formed tremendious clifts of ragged and nearly perpendicular rocks; the
lower part of this rock is of the black grannite before mentioned and the upper part a
light coloured freestone. these clifts continue for 9 miles and approach the river
very closely on either side. he found the current verry strong. Capt. C. killed a
big horn on these clifts which himself and party dined on. after passing this range
of mountains he entered this beautifll valley in which we also were it is from 6 to 8
miles wide. the river is crooked and crouded with islands, it's bottoms wide fertile
and covered with fine grass from 9 inches to 2 feet high and possesses but a scant
proportion of timber, which consists almost entirely of a few narrow leafed cottonwood
trees [Narrowleaf Cottonwood, Populus angustifolia] distributed
along the verge of the river. in the evening Capt. C. found the Elk I had left him
and ascended a short distance above to the entrance of a large creek which falls in on the
Stard. and encamped opposite to it on the Lard. side. [Clark camped opposite the
mouth of Boulder River, near the present village of Cardwell.] he
sent out the two Fieldses to hunt this evening and they killed 5 deer, which with the Elk
again gave them a plentifull store of fresh provisions. this large creek we called Field's
Creek after Reubin Fields one our party. on the river about the mountains wich Capt.
C. passed today he saw some large cedar trees and some juniper also [Rocky
Mountain Juniper or Red Cedar, Juniperus scopulorum and Common Juniper, J.
communis] just at the upper side of the mountain there is a bad
rappid here the toe line of our canoe broke in the shoot of the rapid and swung on
the rocks and had very nearly overset. a small distance above this rapid a large
bold Creek falls in on Lard. side which we called Frazier's Creek after Robt. Frazier. ["Frasures
Creek," after Robert Frazier of the party, now South Boulder Creek, near Cardwell.]
They saw a large brown bear feeding on currants but could not get a shoot at him.
Courses and distances as navigated with the Canoes on the 1st of
|N. 30o W.
||to a point of rocks on the Lard. side, at this place the river passes
through perpendicular Clifts.
|N. 60o W.
||to the upper part of the rocks in a Stard. bend
|S. 70o W.
||to a clift on the Lard. side
|S 45o W.
||to a Stard. bend.
|S. 26o W.
|| 1 3/4
||to a bluff on the Stard. side.
||to a Lard. bend, at this place the river enters a high mountain of steep
and ruggid clifts on both sides.
|N. 30o W.
|| 1 1/4
||to a Stard. bend under a high clift
|N. 80o W.
||to a clift of high rocks in a Stard. bend a small bottom on Lard.
|S. 60o W.
||to a Lard. bend under a iney hill.
|N. 25o W.
||to a small Island on the Lard. side
|N. 30o E.
||to a Stard. bend high clifts on both sides
|N. 80o W.
||to the entrance of a large creek on Lard. side passing an island and rapid
of 6 feet fall; these we called Frazier's falls and Creek after Robert Frazier one of our
party. here the river again enters a valley.--
||to a Stard. bend under a hill.
|N. 45o W.
||to a Lard. bend
|N. 70o W.
|| 1 1/2
||to the oint of an Island passing several smal Islds.
||to a Stard. bend.
||to the lower point of an Island
|N. 45o W.
||to the entrance of a Large creek on Stard. wich we called Field's Creek,
after Reubin Fields one of our party.-- opposite to which encamped on Lard. side.--
August 01, 1805
William Clark [Clark's Birthday]
A fine day Capt. Lewis left me at 8 oClock just below the place I entered a
verrey high mountain which jutted its tremedious Clifts on either Side for 9 Miles, the
rocks ragide Some verry dark & other part verry light rock the light rocks in Sand
Stone. The water Swift & very Sholey. I killed a Ibix
on which the whole party Dined, after passing through the Mountain we entered a wide
extesive vallie of from 4 to 8 Miles wide verry leavell a Creek falls in at the
Commencement of this Vallie on the Lard Side, the river widens & spreds into Small
Chanels. W[e] encamped on the Lard Side opposit a large Creek I
sent out Jo; & R fields to hunt this evening they killed 5 Deer, I saw a large Bear
eateing Currents this evining The river so rapid that the greatest exertion is
required by all to get the boats on wind S W Murckery at sun rise 50o Ab. o
August 01, 1805
a fine morning we Set out as usal, and proceeded on. Some of the hunters killed a
goose and a beaver. about 8 oClock A.m. we halted took breakfast under a
handsom ceeder tree on S. Side. Capt. Lewis, Sergt. Gass, G. Drewyer and our Intrepter
Sharbonoe Set out to go on by land 4 or 5 days expecting to find Some Indians.
we proceeded on the current Swift. we find currents of different
kinds as usal, and wild or choak cherries which are now gitting ripe. the hills begin to
git higher and more pine timber on them, and ceeder along the River. we passed clifts of
rocks about 500 feet from the Surface of the water. considerble of pine timber along
the Sides of the hills. Saw Some timber or trees along the Shores, resembling ceeder [Rocky
Mountain Red Cedar] which Some call juniper wood [Common Juniper, Juniperus
communis]. about noon Capt Clark killed a Mountain Sheep out of a flock on
the Side of a redish hill or clifts on L. Side he Shot it across the River and the
rest of the flock ran up the clifts which was nearly Steep. the one killed roled
down Some distance when it fell. we got it and dined hearty on it. we
proceeded on. passed over a bad rapid at the upper end of an Island jest above high
rough clifts of rocks. the towing line of the Captains canoe broke in the pitch of the
rapid and the canoe was near turning over nocking again the rocks. little further up
passed a creek or large Spring run [South Boulder Creek, named Frasures Creek by
the party after Robert Frazier], which came in on L.S. and ran rapid. came
to a large valley which Capt. Clark had Seen before when he came up a fiew days ago.
passed large bottoms covered with timber, on each Side of the River. Saw a white
bear. took on board 2 Elk which Capt. Lewis had killed and left for us. the hunters
killed in these bottoms 5 deer this evening. passed the mouth of a large creek [Boulder
River, named "R. Fields Valley Creek" for Reubin Field] on the Stard.
Side and a Spring. came 13 1/2 miles and Camped on the Lard. Side in a bottom of
cotton timber. high hills on each Side, and Saw the mountain [Tobacco Root
Mountains] a Short distance to the South of us.--
August 01, 1805
We set out early in a fine morning and proceeded on till breakfast time, when Capt.
Lewis, myself and the two interpreters went on ahead to look for some of the Snake Indians
[Gass, Lewis, Charbonneau, Drouillard]. Our course lay across a large
mountain on the north side [The Bull Mountains.], over which we had a
very fatiguing trip of about 11 miles. We then came to the river again; and found it ran
through a handsome valley of from 6 to 8 miles wide. At the entrance of this valley, which
is covered with small bushes, but has very little timber, we killed two elk and left the
meat for the canoes to take up, as the men stood much in need of it, having no fresh
provisions on hand. We crossed a small creek on the north shore [Labeled "R.
Fields Valley Creek," by the captains, for Reubin Fields of the party, now Boulder
River.], and encamped on the same side.
August 01, 1805
a clear morning. we Set out as usal and proceeded on. Some of
the men killed a goose & a beaver about 8 oClock A. M. we took breakfast
under Some handsome ceeder trees on S. Side. Capt. Lewis Sergt. Gass Sharbonoe
& Drewyer Set out by land to go on up the River to make discoverys &c expecting to
find Indians &c. we proceeded on. find currents as usal and choak cherrys
along the River. the current Swift the hills higher and more pine
and ceeder timber on them. we passed high clifts about 500 feet high in may places.
considerable of pine on the Sides of the hills all the hills
rough and uneven. at noon Capt. Clark killed a mountain Sheep, on the side of
a Steep redish hills or clifts the remainder of the flock ran up the Steep clifts.
the one killed roled down Some distance So we got it and dined eairnestly on it.
it being Capt. Clarks birth day he ordered Some flour gave out to the party.
we Saw Some timber along the Shores resembling ceeder which Some call
Juniper, [Rocky Mountain Red Cedar, Juniperus scoprulorum] which
had a delightfull Shade. I left my Tommahawk on the Small Island where we lay
last night which makes me verry Sorry that I forgot it as I had used it common to Smoak
in. proceeded on passed verry high ragid clifts, and a bad rapid
at the upper end of a Small Island the toe rope broke of the Capts. perogue
and it was in danger of upsetting. passed a Spring run or creek [South
Boulder Creek, known as "Frasure's Creek" by members of the party after Robert
Frazier.] on L. Side. came in to a valley. passed bottoms
of timber and the mouth of a large creek [Boulder River, named "R. Fields
Vally Creek" for Reubin Field.] on S. Side, and a Spring also.
we came 13 1/2 miles and Caped opposite the Spring in a fine bottom covered with cotton
timber and thick bushes &c. Saw a white bear. the hunters
killed 5 deer we took on board 2 Elk which Capt. Lewis had killed and left on
Shore for us. Saw Snow on the Mountains [Tobacco Root Mountains.]
a Short distance to the South of us.
August 01, 1805
This morning, Clear & pleasant. We set out as usual, and proceeded on
our Voyage, some of our party killed a Goose and a Beaver. We halted about 8
o'Clock A. M-- where we stopped & took breakfast under some handsome Cedar
trees, lying on the South side of the River.-- Captain Lewis, Sergeant Gass &
George Drewyer, and Sharbono (<who> the latter of which men had joined us at the
mandan village,) set out shortly after, to go by land, up Jefferson River, in Order to
make discoveries, & to try & find out some Indians. We proceeded on,
and found Currants, & Choke cherries growing along the Shores in great abundance.
the current of the River still running very strong against us; and the hills
appearing to us, to be much higher, and more Pine & Cedar Trees growing. About
noon Captain Clark killed a mountain Sheep or Ibex, out of a flock, which were on the side
of Steep reddish hills or Clifts
The remainder of the Flock of mountain sheep or Ibex, ran up the steep Clifts, out of
Gunshot, and to such a heighth as is most incredible-- The Mountain sheep that
was killed, rolled down the Hill, and we got it.-- We stopped at this place to
dine, which was amongst the high Clifts, and it being Captain Clarkes birth day; he
ordered some flour to be served out to the party, which with the mountain Sheep made us an
excellent meal,-- We proceeded on at 3 o'Clock P. M. and passed by some Trees,
growing along the Shore; which resembled in look the Cedar Tree, but it was what is called
the Wild Juniper, This Tree afforded a most delightfull shade. we also passed
very high rugged Clifts, lying on both sides of the River, and a very bad Rapid, at the
upper end of an Island; where the Tow Rope broke of the Canoe, that Captain Clarke was on
board & it had nearly upset. We came by a Run or Creek, which lies on the South
side of the River, and came in at a Valley, & bottoms of timber'd land, the Mouth of a
large Creek, and a large Spring lying also in the South side of the River, We came 13 1/2
Miles this day & encamped opposite this spring, in a bottom covered with Cotton wood
Timber, & thick Brush.-- We saw a White or brown Bear on the hills some distance
from our Camp. The hunters who were on Shore since morning, returned to us, and had
killed 5 Deer which we took on board the Canoes & also 2 Elk which Captain Lewis &
party had killed and left at this place for us, We also saw Snow on the Mountains, a short
distance to the South of our Camp.--