with Captains David E. Jones and Ray Curtis, M.I.S.
notes by James Richard Fromm, member of the Corp
Wednesday August 6, 2003
J. R. Fromm
The Corp of Rediscovery, making up the class studying Lewis and Clark Over the Bitterroot Range, arrived at the Corp of Discoveries Canoe Camp at 9:15 AM. At this location the Captain, Ray Curtis, completed some administrative duties, we said our farewells and departed for a brief interlude for breakfast.
Upon our return at 12:00 PM those continuing on met with David E. Jones who would be our primary leader during the class entitled: Lewis and Clark Among the Nez. Perce. Ray Curtis would also be part of this leg of the journey.
We shuttled vehicles to our evening campsite at Pink House Campground.
N. 46o 30' 255" W. 116o 20' 851" Elevation: 966 Feet
Returning to Canoe Camp three rafts were prepared for departure down the Clearwater River. We stopped briefly near Lenore, ID not too distant from the location where the Lewis and Clark party cached two canisters of powder, October 7, 1805, and where one of the parties canoes had struck a rock, October 10, 1805, requiring patching. We traveled approximately 12 miles on the river. In the evening we were fortunate enough to be given a presentation by Diane Mallickan a Nez Perce employee of the National Park Service. She discussed much regarding the "Oral History of the Nez Perce" and I found the subtle changes most interesting.
Thursday August 7, 2003
J. R. Fromm
Arose at 7:10 AM. Took some readings.
We met with the Instructor to conduct the business of this adventure. Introductions were made by all.
Cecil Hicks Jim Fromm Joe Partington Mike Wright Dave Wheeler Chris Borne Kim Kaylor Ron Kaylor Eloise Cappellano Mark Duff Pete Lendeman Brian Zimmer Dave Alex Dale Bainberg John
The plan laid out before us was to travel by motorcade downstream within view of the town of Lewiston, ID and double back to start our study of both the Nez Perce and Lewis & Clark Among the Nez Perce.
Coyote's Fishnet tells how Coyote and Black Bear battled at this location with the result that two geological landmarks were formed. One on each side of the Clearwater River.
The historical marker below depicts Nez Perce oral history regarding the means by which the stone arch in the center background was formed. While the participants in the battle involved two insects the power of decision was made by the Nez Perce animal spirit "Coyote".
From the location of the battle between the Ant & Yellowjacket we "Proceeded On" to Colter Creek now known as the Potlatch River, arriving at 9:50 AM. At this location a Peace Medal had been presented to a local chief which was found 100 years later in a grave when construction was undertaken for the train trestle now located on this site.
N. 46o 28' 497" W. 116o 46' 151" Elevation: 892 Feet
After leaving the Potlatch River (Colter Creek) we drove to the small community of Peck, Idaho arriving at 10:30 AM. At this location we learned Lewis & Clark dropped down into the Peck Canyon Area after traveling above on the ridge top. This event took place May 7, 1806 on their return trip . They had left the river, traveling east, at approximately what is today mile post 26. Peck Canyon opens to the river at approximately mile post 34. They did not return to the river at this location but continued across country to the encampment of Broken Arm.
Rather than continue over the ridge top as did the party of 1806, we elected to travel the river road to the Forest Service Regional Headquarters. Here, arriving at 11:30 AM, near Orofino, ID, we stopped for a brief lunch and visitation. Completing this task we "Proceeded On" to the area suspected to be the location of Twisted Hairs camp.
N. 46o 28' 038" W. 116o 14' 429" Elevation: 1050 Feet
The Corp of Discovery remained at or near the camp of Twisted Hair in the region of Jim Ford Creek and the Clearwater from September 21-25, 1805, on their westward journey.
September 21, 1805
a fine morning Sent out all the hunters early in different directions to Kill something and delayed with the Indians to prevent Suspicion & to acquire as much information as possible. one of them Drew me a Chart of the river & nations below informed of one falls below which the white men lived from whome they got white beeds cloth &c. &c. The day proved warm, 2 Chifs of Bands visited me to day-- the hunters all returned without any thing, I collected a horse load of roots & 3 Sammon & sent R Fields with one Indian to meet Capt Lewis at 4 oClock Set out with the other men to the river, passed thro a fine Pine Country decended a Steep ruged hill verry long to a Small river which comes from our left and I suppose it to be [blank] River passed down the river 2 miles on a Steep hill side at 11 oClock P. M. arrived at a camp of 5 Squars a boy & 2 Children those people were glad to See us & gave us drid Sammon one had formerly been taken by the Minitarries of the north & Seen white men, our guide called the Chief who was fishing on the other Side of the river, whome I found a Cherfull man of about 65 I gave him a Medal.
September 21, 1805
A fine morning Sent out all the hunters in different directions to hunt deer, I myself delayd with the Chief to prevent Suspission and to Collect by Signs as much information as possible about the river and Countrey in advance. The Cheif drew me a kind of chart of the river, and informed me that a great Cheif than himself was fishing at the river half a days march from his village called the twisted hare, and that the river forked a little below his Camp [The junction of the North Fork Clearwater with the main stream, in Clearwater County, Idaho, west of present Orofino.] and at a long distance below & below 2 large forks one from the left & the other from the right [The first is proabably the Snake River, the second the Columbia.] the river passed thro'gh the mountains at which place was a great fall of the water passing through the rocks, [Celilo Falls] at those falls white people lived from whome they preceured the white Beeds & Brass &c. which the womin wore; a Chief of another band visit me to day and Smoked a pipe, I gave my handkerchief & a Silver Cord with a little Tobacco to those Chiefs, The hunters all return without any thing, I purchased as much Provisions as I could with what fiew things I chaned to have in my Pockets, Sucy a Salmon Bread roots & berries, & Sent one man R. Fields with an Indian to meet Capt. Lewis, and at 4 oClock P M. Set out to the river, met a man at dark on his way from the river to the village, whome I hired and gave the neck handkerchief of one of the men, to polit me to the Camp of the twisted hare, [Apparently his name was Walamottinin, meaning "hair or forelock bunced and tied] we did not arrive at the Camp of the Twisted hare but oppost, untill half past 11 oClock P M. [This camp was on the Clearwater River on the "Fishing Island" about a mile above present Orofino, Clearwater County, Idaho.] found at this Camp five Squars & 3 Children. my guide called to the Chief who was Encamped with 2 others on a Small Island in the river, he Soon joined me, I found him a Chearfull man with apparant Siencerity, I gave him a medal &c. and Smoked untill 1 oClock a. m. and went to Sleep. The Countrey from the mountains to the river hills is a leavel rich butifull Pine Countrey badly watered, thinly timbered & covered with grass-- [The dominant grasses of the area are Idaho Fescue, Festuca idahoensis and Bluebunch Wheatgrass, Agropyron spicatum, the latter plant being new to science.] The weather verry worm after descending into the low Countrey,-- the river hills are verry high & Steep, Small bottoms to this little river which is Flat head [Their first name for the combination of Whitesand (Killed Colt) Creek, Lochsa River, and the Clearwater River; they changed the name later to Kooskooskee River.] & is 160 yards wide and Sholey This river is the one we killed the first Coalt on near a fishing were
I am verry Sick to day and puke which relive me.
September 22, 1805
a fine morning, I proceed on down the little river to about 1 1/2 a mile & found the Chif in a Canoe Comeing to meet me I got into his Canoe & Crossed over to his Camp on a Small Island at a rapid Sent out the hunters leaving one to take care of the baggage, & after eating a part of a Samn. I Set out on my return to meet Capt. Lewis with the Chief & his Son at 2 miles met Shields with 3 Deer, I took a Small peice & Changed for his horse which was fresh & proced on this horse threw me 3 times which hurt me Some. at Dark met Capt Lewis Encamped at the first Village men much fatigued & reduced, the Supply which I sent by R Flds. was timely, they all eate hartily of roots & fish, 2 horses lost 1 Days Journey back
September 22nd Sunday 1805
our first course of yesterday was nearly N. 80o W. winding thro a Grassy Pine Country of fine land for 12 miles S. 70 W. 3 miles down a Steep hill & on a hill Side a Creek to the right to the river from the left at a rapid West 2 miles down the <West> N Side of the River and Encamped, in the morning proceeded down to the Cheif Lodge on an Island, found 3 men fishing hot day
September 22, 1805
a verry worm day the hunters Shild killed 3 Deer this morning. I left them on the Island and Set out with the Chief & his Son on a young horse for the Village at which place I expected to meet Capt Lewis this young horse in fright threw himself & me 3 times on the Side of a Steep hill & hurt my hip much, Cought a Coalt which we found on the roade & I rode it for Several miles untill we saw the Chiefs horses, he cought one & we arrived at his Village at Sunset, & himself and myself walked up to the 2d Village where I found Capt Lewis & the party Encamped, much fatigued, & hungery, much rejoiced to find something to eate of which They appeared to partake plentifully. I cautioned them of the Consequences of eateing too much &c.
The planes appeared covered with Spectators viewing the White men and the articles which we had, our party weacke and much reduced in flesh as well as Strength, The horse I left hung up they receved at al time they were in great want, and the Supply I Sent by R. Fields proved timely and gave great encouragement to the party with Captn. Lewis. he lost 3 horses one of which belonged to our guide. Those Indians Stole out of R.F. Shot pouch his knife wipers Compas & Steel, which we Could not precure from them, we attempted to have Some talk with those people but Could not for the want of an Interpreter thro' which we Could Speake, we were Compelled to converse alltogether by Signs-- I got the Twisted hare to draw the river from his Camp down which he did with great cherfullness on a white Elk Skin, from the 1s fork [The North Fork Clearwater, the "Chopunnish" River] which is a few seven miles below, to the large fork [Probably the Snake River] on which the So So ne or Snake Indians fish, is South 2 Sleeps; to a large river [The Columbia, into which the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille River combination empties.] which falls in on the N.W. Side and into which The Clarks river empties itself in 5 Sleeps from the mouth of that river to the falls is 5 Sleeps at the falls he places Establishments of white people &c. and informs that great numbers of Indians reside on all those foks as well as the main river; one other Indian gave me a like account of the Countrey, Some few drops of rain this evening. I precured maps of the Country & river with the Situation of Indians, To come from Several men of note Seperately which varied verey little.--
September 23, 1805
Traded with the Indians, made 3 Chiefs and gave them meadels & Tobacco & Handkerchif & knives, and a flag & left a Flag & hand kerches for the great Chief when he returns from war, in the evening proceeded to the 2d Vilg 2 miles, a hard wind and rain at dark, traded for Some root Bread & Skins to make Shirts. hot day
September 23, 1805
We assembled the principal Men as well as the Chiefs and by Signs informed them where we came from where bound our wish to inculcate peace and good understanding between all the red people &c. which appeared to Satisfy them much, we then gave 2 other Medals to other Chefs of bands, a flag to the twisted hare, left a flag & Handkerchief to the grand Chief gave, a Shirt to the Twisted hare & a knife & Handkerchif with a Small pece of Tobacco to each. Finding that those people gave no provisions to day we deturmined to purchase with our Small articles of Merchindize, accord we purchased all we could, Such as roots dried, in bread, & in ther raw State, Berris of red Haws & Fish and in the evening Set out and proceeded on the the 2d Village [The same village at which Clark's party stayed on the night of September 20, 1805, about a mile southwest of Weippe, Clearwater County, Idaho] 2 miles dist. where we also purchased a few articles all amounting to as much as our weak horses Could Carry to the river Capt. Lewis & 2 men Verry Sick this evening, my hip Verry Painfull, the men trade a few old tin canisters for dressed Elk Skin to make themselves Shirts, at dark a hard wind from The S W accompaned with rain which lasted half an hour. The twisted hare envited Capt Lewis & myself to his lodge which was nothin more than Pine buses & bark, and gave us Some broiled dried Salmon to eate, great numbers about us all night at this village the women were busily employed in gathering and drying the Pas-she co root of which they had great quantities dug in piles
September 24, 1805
(First draft) Set out early for the river and proceeded on the Same road I had prevsly gorn to the Island at which place I had found the Chief & formed a Camp several 8 or 9 men sick, Capt. Lewis sick all Complain of a Lax & heaviness at the stomack, I gave rushes Pills to several hot day maney Indians & thier gangues of horses follow us hot day Hunter had 5 Deer
(Second draft) a fine morning collected our horses despatched J. Colter back to hunt the horeses lost in the mountains & bring up Some Shot left behind, and at 10 oClock we all Set out for the river and proceeded on by the Same rout I had previously traveled, and at Sunset We arrived at the Island on which I found the Twisted hare and formed a Camp on a large Island a littl below, [Just below Twisted Hair's camp, which Clark first reached on September 21, 1805, on what was China Island of the Clearwater River, about a mile above Orofino, Clearwater County, Idaho.] Capt. Lewis scercely able to ride on a jentle horse which was furnished by the Chief, Several men So unwell that they were Compelled to lie on the Side of the road for Some time others obliged to be put on horses.[Presumably the result of the change of diet, and perhaps bacteria on the dried salmon.] I gave rushes Pills to the Sick this evening. Several Indians follow us.
September 25, 1805
Septr. 25th I with th Chief & 2 young men went down to hunt timber for Canoes-- proceeded on down to the forks 4 miles N 70o W 2 miles S. 75o W 2 miles, halted young men Cought 6 Sammon, the forks nearly the Same Size, Crossed the South fork & found Timber large Pine in a bottom Proceded up the South Side 3 parts of Party Sick Capt Lewis verry Sick hot day
September 25, 1805
a verry hot day, most of the Party Complaining and 2 of our hunters left here on the 22nd Verry sick, they had killed only two Bucks in my absence. I set out early with the Chief and 2 young men to hunt Some trees Calculated to build Canoes, as we had previously deturmined to proceed on by water, I was furnished with a horse and we proceeded on down the river Crossed a Creek at 1 mile from the right verry rockey which I call rock dam Creek [Orofino Creek] & Passed down on the N side of the river to a fork [The Junction of the North Fork Clearwater and Clearwater rivers] from the North which is about the Same Size and affords about the Same quantity of water with the other forks we halted about an hour, one of the young men took his guig and killed 6 fine Salmon two of them were roasted and we eate, two Canoes Came up loaded with the furnitur & provisions of 2 families, those Canoes are long Stedy and without much rake I crossed the South fork and proceeded up on the South Side, the most of the way thro' a narrow Pine bottom in which I saw fine timber for Canoes [Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa] one of the Indian Canoes with 2 men with Poles Set out from the forks at the Same time I did and arrived at our Camp on the Island within 15 minits of the Same time I did, not withstanding 3 rapids which they had to draw the Canoe thro' in the distance, when I arrived at Camp found Capt Lewis verry Sick, Several men also verry Sick, I gave Some Salts & Tarter emetic, we deturmined to go to where the best timbr was and there form a Camp
September 25, 1805
A fine, pleasant, warm morning. The hunters went out early and Captain Clarke rode out to see if there were any trees to be found large enough for canoes. The men in general appear to be getting much better; but Captain Lewis is very sick and taking medicine; and myself and two or three of the men are yet very unwell. The climate here is warm; and the heat to-day was as great as we had experienced at any time during the summer. The water also is soft and warm, and perhaps causes our indisposition more than any thing else. In the evening Captain Clarke returned to camp, having discovered a place about 5 or 6 miles down the river, where a large branch [The North Fork Clearwater River] comes in on the north side that will furnish timber large enough for our purpose. Our hunters also came in, and had killed nothing but a small panther [Mountain lion, Felis concolor] and a pheasant. The man who had remained at the first village came up.
September 25, 1805
a fair morning. three men went out a hunting. Capt. Clark went with an old chief down the River to look for timber which would answer for canoes. the Natives have Several Small canoes at this place. this River is about 60 yards wide Some clifts of rocks along its Shores. the natives have a fishery little above our Camp. they caught Several fine Sammon this day. towards evening Capt. Clark returned and informed us that he had been 4 or 5 miles down to a fork [North Fork Clearwater River] of the River which came in on the east Side he Saw Some pitch pine timber which he thought would answer for canoes near this forks on the opposite shore in the evening the man who Stayed at the village joined us had got his horse by hireing Indians to git him
September 25, 1805
a fine morning. three men out a hunting. Capt. Clark went with a chief down the River to look for timber which would answer for to make cannoes. the natives have Several Small cannoes in the River one at th[is] place. this River is about Sixty yards wide and gener[ally] deep. Some clifts of rocks along the Shores. the nativ[es] have a fishery fixed in the River little above our Camp, in which they catch large quantity of Sammon. they went withe the canoes and took in Several today. they gig a great many also towards evening Capt. Clark returned had been down about 4 miles at a fork [North Fork Clearwater River, their Choopunnish River, after the captains' name for the Nez Perces.] which came in on the East Side. he informs us that their is Some timber at the forks but not verry large & knotty. So we conclude to move down tomorrow. the natives drive a nomber of their horses from the villages to this place. the man who Stayed at the village for his horse arived here this evening. had got his horse by hireing Indians to git him.
September 25, 1805
A fine morning, Three of our Men went out a hunting. Captain Clark went down the River with an Indian chief to look out for timber fitting to make Canoes of, The Natives had several small Canoes in this fork of the River, & one of them lay at the place where we were encamp'd. The fork of Columbia River which we are at is about 60 Yards wide, and generally very deep, and has some Clifts of rocks along its shores.-- The Natives had a fishery fixed on this fork of the River, a small distance above our Camp, in which they catch quantities of Salmon in the fishing season they went to it with their Canoes, and took out a number of Salmon on this day.-- They also procure a number of them which they kill with a Gig,-- Towards evening Captain Clark returned, he had been down the fork about 4 Miles, to where <a> another small fork came in to the fork, which we are on, on the East side of it-- he mention'd that he had seen some timber at the place where these two forks <made> met but that it was not very large & full of knots. Our officers concluded to move down to that place tomorrow. The Natives drove during this day, a number of their horses to this place. The Man who staid behind to hunt the horse, that was lost, arrived here this Evening; <they> he had the horse with him, which was found by some of the Indians that <they> he had hired at the Village to hunt him
We left Twisted Hairs "camp" and "Proceeded On" to Kamiah Overlook arriving at 12:50 PM.
N. 46o 13' 276" W. 116o 02' 884" Elevation: 2111 Feet
In 1806 after visiting Broken Arms encampment the Corp of Discovery "Proceeded On" to present day Kamiah via Lawyer's Creek where they set up their month long camp, May 14 - June 10, 1806, believed to be the mill site on the north side of the river as shown in the picture above.
It is also believed the trip taken by Ordway, Frazier and Weiser to the Snake and Salmon fishing grounds, May 27, 1806, was by traveling up Lawyer's Creek crossing the Camas Prairie and descending to the Salmon and Snake beyond present day Cottonwood, ID.
At 1:30 PM we left Kamiah Overlook and traveled through town, crossing the river to the site of the "Heart of the Monster." Nez Perce Legend states a fierce "mythological battle" (my quotations) took place.
N. 46o 12' 758" W. 116o 00' 396"
The picture above was taken at the "Heart of the Monster" battle site. Our Corp of Rediscovery is learning from Nez Perce "Oral History" of the legend.
We left the "Heart of the Monster" and moved up river south of Stites, ID arriving at 2:05 PM. This location is the site of a battle which occurred July 11-12, 1877 between the Nez Perce and the U.S. Army led by O. O. Howard.
After leaving the region of Stites we traveled through the community of Grangeville, ID and "Proceeded On" down White Bird Grade.
We arrived at the White Bird Battlefield Overlook at 3:10 PM.
N. 45o 48' 118" W. 116o 17' 184" Elevation: 2890 Feet
The summit of White Bird Pass is 4429 feet above sea level. We "Proceeded On".
We arrived at Tolo Lake at 3:50 PM. This small lake was a stopping off place for the Nez Perce traveling between the Camas Prairie area to the north and the Salmon River at the bottom of White Bird Pass to the south. In 1877 the Nez Perce had rested here prior to the battle of July 11-12, 1877.
In recent times mammoth bones have been discovered beneath the water of Tolo Lake.
We left Tolo Lake and "Proceeded On" in the direction of Winchester, ID with a brief stop at 4:15 PM near Lawyer's Canyon to be reminded of the events involving Sgt. Ordway and Pvts. Frazer and Weiser in their attempt to acquire Salmon from the Indians fishing on the Salmon and Snake Rivers.
May 27, 1806
... we sent Reubin Feilds in surch of the horse which the indians had given us to kill. ... he returned with the horse and we killed and butchered him; ... Hohastillpilp told us that most of the horses we saw runing at large in this neighbourhood belonged to himself and his people, and whenever we were in want of meat he requested that we would kill any of them we wished; this is a piece of liberallity which would do honour to such a bo[a]st of civilization; indeed I doubt whether there are not a great number of our countrymen who would see us fast many days before their compassion would excite them to a similar act of liberallity. ... we also sent Sergt. ordway and 2 men this morning over to Lewis's river for salmon, ... Drewyer, Cruzatte, and Labuish returned at 4 P.M. with five deer ...
the Chopunnish appear to be very attentive and kind to their aged people and treat their women with more rispect than the nations of the Missouri.
The Black woodpecker which I have frequently mentioned and which is found in most parts of the roky Mountains as well as the Western and S.W. mountains, I had never an opportunity of examining untill a few days since when we killed and preserved several of them.
(Now known as "Lewis's woodpecker")
May 27, 1806
J.Frazer and wiser Set out to go over to the kimooenim river [Meaning the Snake River, Lewis's River to the party, the term "kimooenem" was applied to the Tucannon River.] for fish [page torn, word missing] Swam our horses and waidd on to village on commeap cre[ek] [Lawyer Creek] three young men went on with [us] up Sd. creek about 5 miles left this creek ascended a high hill on a plain and proced. on passd. a lodge where we Struck the creek again followed up Said creek about 8 miles farther and came to the chiefs village which took care of our horses. the [illegible] chief, and as the old man said he was a going on with us in the morning the young men returned and we camped here, and had a hard Thunder Shower. the Indians grass houses leak.
May 29, 1806
rained the greater part of last night. a rainy morning. we took a light breakfast Frazer got 2 Spanish mill dollars from a squaw for an old razer [Gass claims in his entry of June 2, 1806 that the coins came from the neck of a dead Shoshone Indian whom the Nez Perces had killed some time before.] we expect they got them from the Snake Indians who live near the Spanish country to the South.[Possibly New Mexico] we proceed. on shortyly arived at a fork of the kimoo-enim or Lewises river [Salmon River; Ordway uses 'Kimooenem" inappropriately.] followed down it Some distance then left it and bore to the right up a creek. [Possibly China Creek] passd one lodge crossed a steep bad hill and descended down a long hill an a run pass a large lodge and descended the worst hills we ever saw a road made down. towards evening we arived at the kimooenim or Lewises river at a fishery at a bad rapid.[Possibly over Wapshilla Ridge to the Snake River. They may have gone down Corral Creek to the fishery at Wild Goose Rapids another theory suggests they descended in an area between China Garden Creek and Cave Gulch to the Snake River and following it to McDuff Rapids near the Asotin-Wallowa country line, some distance to the south of Wild Goose Rapids] our chief told us to set down and not go in the lodge untill we were invited so we did at length they invited us in. spread robes for us to sit on and Set a roasted Salmon before us and Some of their white bread which they call uppah.[Possible "apa", cous cake."] we eat hearty of this fat fish but did not eat 1/4 of it. It was Set up for us. this lodge is about 100 feet long and 20 wide and all in one but they have but fiew Salmon.
June 02, 1806
having exhausted all our merchandize we are obliged to have recourse to every subterfuge in order to prepare in the most ample manner in our power to meet that wretched portion of our journy, the Rocky Mountains, where hungar and cold in their most rigorous forms assail the w[e]aried traveller; not any of us have yet forgotten our suffering in those mountains in September last, and I think it probable we never shall. Our traders McNeal and York were furnished with the buttons which Capt. C. and myself cut off our coats, some eye water and Basilicon which we made for that purpose and some Phials and small tin boxes which I had brought out with Phosphorus. in the evening they returned with about 3 bushels of roots and some bread having made a successfull voyage, not much less pleasing to us than the return of a good cargo to an East India Merchant.
Drewyer arrived this morning with Neeshneparkkeeook and Hohastillpilp who had accompanyed him to the lodges of the persons who had our tomahawks. ... the one which had been stolen we prized most as it was the private property of the late Sergt. Floyd and Capt. C. was desirous of returning it to his friends. his relations were unwilling to give up the tomehawk ... but were at length induced to do so for the consideration of a ha[n]dkerchief, two strands of beads, which (Cap C. sent by) Drewyer gave them and two horses given by the cheifs to be killed agreeably to their custom at the grave of the disceased.
... Sergt. Ordway Frazier and Wizer returned with 17 salmon ... the distance was so great from which they had brought the fish that most of them were nearly spoiled. these fish were as fat as any I ever saw; sufficiently so to cook themselves without the addition of grease; those which were sound were extreemly delicious; their flesh if of a fine rose colour with a small admixture of yellow.
(One of these men got two Spanish dollars from an Indian for an old razor.)
... my sick horse being much reduced and apearing to be in such an agoni of pain that there was no hope of his recovery I ordered him shot this evening. ... I have no hesitation in declaring my beleif that the indian method of gelding is preferable to that practiced by ourselves.
June 02, 1806
a fair morning. we Set out eairly and turned down the river passd 2 more villages about 12 oClock we arived at our Camp. [Camp Chopunnish] found the river verry high indeed. Swam the horses across and got across in an Indian canoe as our men informed us that as Some of our men were crossing several days past our large canoe ran against Some trees as they were going to Shore and the canoe upset and Sank emediately. the men got Safe to Shore but lost three blankets one blanket cappo and Several articles, they had for trade &C. they had killed a horse soon after we went away to eat which the natives gave us for that purpose Soon after our hunters killed and brought to Camp 12 Deer. some of our castrated horses are nearly well and one is Sick and like to dye. So some of our men went and Shot him &C. towards evening the head chief [Actually two, Cut Nose & Hohots Ilppilp] of the cho-pennish nation came to our Camp with George Drewyer and brought and gave up a tommahawk [Actually two, one of which belonged to Sergeant Floyd and had been stolen.] which Capt Clark lost last fall which the chief kept for us.
June 02, 1806
The morning was cloudy, and six of the men went out to hunt. About noon three men, who had gone over to Lewis's river, about two and an half days' journey distant, to get some fish, returned with a few very good salmon, and some roots which they bought at the different villages of the natives, which they passed. One of these men [Frazer] got two Spanish dollars from an Indian for an old razor. They said they got the dollars from about a Snake Indian's neck they had killed some time ago. There are several dollars among these people which they get in some way. We suppose the Snake Indians, some of whom do not live very far from New Mexico, get them from the Spaniards in that quarter. The Snake Indians also get horses from the Spaniards. The meen had a very disagreeable trip as the roads were mountainous and slippery. They saw a number of deer, and of the ibex or big-horn.
We left Lawyer's Canyon Overlook and "Proceeded On" to Winchester, ID arriving at 5:00 PM.
N. 46o 14' 150" W. 116o 37' 579" Elevation: 3920 Feet
After a bite to eat we traveled a short distance to a Wolf Recovery Program supported by donations and the Nez Perce Tribe. There are approximately 13 wolves at this location. They have been neutered, have become relatively domesticated and our guide stated they would likely be unable to survive in the wild if released. It is the intention to allow them to live out their lives at this location at which time this site will be closed.
Friday, August 8, 2003
J. R. Fromm
Arose at 7:00 AM and "Proceeded On" to the Park Rangers Headquarters to gather information regarding the Mill Site (pictures above of lake and water tower) which once operated in Winchester. It was owned by the Grandfather of Andrea Partington, wife of Joe Partington one of the members of our party.
We returned to camp at 8:15 AM where we were provided information regarding the likely attire of members of the Corp of Discovery. This presentation was conducted by Robert Singletary, a local historian from Coeur d'Alene, ID. This presentation was occasionally interrupted by a menacing tree squirrel dropping hard green pine cones on those below. Those missiles can be seen in the picture above.
Later members of our party departed to a gravel pit where all were invite to fire the flint-lock musket shown in the picture above. Those who partook of this opportunity displayed themselves well.
After departing Winchester, ID we "Proceeded On" to Lapwai, ID arriving at 11:15 AM. This is the headquarters of the Nez Perce Tribe Horse Registry. Here we met a young man who took us through the Appaloosa Horse Breeding Ranch. They currently have 98 horses and are pleased with the recognition this facility is gaining with respect to the quality of their breeding stock.
Leaving the Nez Perce Tribe Horse Registry we "Proceeded On" to Spalding, ID arriving at 12:00 PM. Here we viewed a video regarding the history (oral and otherwise) of the Nez Perce. We were given a guided tour of the museum by Jim Speer an Interpreter working with the National Park Service. At the conclusion of the tour our instructors provided us with the necessary paperwork to be completed on site, informed us of our responsibilities and timelines for turning in assigned material and all said their farewells. We departed.
See you on the mountain!
J. R. Fromm
The punctuation, spelling, syntax, incorrect words and otherwise poor use of words is as they were written in my notebook.