Lewis & Clark Over the Bitterroot Range

with Captain Ray Curtis, M.I.S.

notes by James Richard Fromm, member of the Corp


Monday August 4, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Joe Partington and myself left Coeur d'Alene, ID at 5:00 AM enroute to Bonner, MT, the residence of our, Lewis and Clark Over the Bitterroot Range, instructor, Ray Curtis.   We arrived 20 minutes late for our scheduled 8:00 AM rendezvous.  Ray was kind enough to wait for our arrival.  We did the usual introductions and discussed expectations for the class.  The follow members of this Corp of Discovery were present for introductions.

            Denny and Mary Gay Almquist; Missoula, MT

            Paulette Macintyre; Missoula, MT pmacintre@mcps.k12.mt.us

            Fran O’Connell; Missoula, MT bestbid@bigsky.net

Chris Baush; Livingston, MT

            Joe Brennenman; Kalispell, MT circle@montanasky.net

            Nancy Pensa; Kalispell, MT

            David Ellingson; Woodburn, OR dellingson@yahoo.com

            Dan Fairbank; Columbia Falls, MT dfairbank@hotmail.com

            Doug Good; Columbia Falls, MT goodcf@webtv.net

            Dan Fenner; Lake Stevens, WA danfenner@hotmail.com

            Tom Matlack; Lake Stevens, WA tnmatlack@earthlink.net

            Jim Fromm, Coeur d’ Alene, ID jfromm@3rd1000.com

            Joe Partington; Coeur d’ Alene, ID jmpartington@hotmail.com

            Kim and Ron Kaylor; Terebone, OR kkaylor@culver.k12.or.us

            Harry Wiley; Trout Creek, MT coyote@blackfoot.net

We proceeded on to "Traveller's Rest" with a brief stop at Rattlesnake Creek to take a couple of pictures.

Rattlesnake1.jpg (74578 bytes)

If you notice, this plaque represents the first name of Meriwether Lewis as Meriweather.  It also states that "Meriweather Lewis And His Party camped By This Stream July 4, 1806".  This was in error as they did not camp at this site.  

Rattlesnake2.jpg (88006 bytes)

Here we have an example of exploitation in its finest.  A local restaurant on the banks of Rattlesnake Creek display a mural painted on two large plate glass windows suggesting that not only Lewis and his party were camped at this site but Clark was as well.  The fact is contrary as Clark had departed to the south from "Traveller's Rest" to return to Camp Fortunate to pick up supplies the Corp of Discovery had cached.  He continued on down the Jefferson to the Three Forks of the Missouri.

We proceeded on to "Traveller's rest" arriving at 10:30 AM.   It was pointed out to this Corp of Rediscovery that the original Corp of Discovery encountered no Indians in Montana until they were within approximately 8 miles of its western most boundary.

Traveller1.jpg (82025 bytes)

N. 46o 44' 968"
W. 114o 05' 248"
Elevation 3210 Feet

Traveller2.jpg (92143 bytes)

Traveller3.jpg (105936 bytes)

Traveller4.jpg (104109 bytes)

From "Traveller's Rest" we moved up Lolo Creek to historic "Fort Fizzle" where early day settlers built a fort to defend themselves from the Nez Perce who were attempting an escape from General O.O.Howard.  The fort was a fizzle because the Nez Perce simply rode around the fort on the hillside to the north but in view of that fine establishment or so the story goes.

After a brief stay at this location with a short discussion of the progress of Lewis & Clark and the controversy which can be associated with "Nez Perce Oral History" we proceeded on to the Lolo Creek Trail Head where we arrived at 12:30 PM.

N. 46o 46' 405"
W. 114o 26' 371"
Elevation: 4236 Feet

September 12, 1805
William Clark

a white frost   Set out at 7 oClock & proceeded on up the Creek, passed a Fork [Woodman Creek, MT] on the right on which I saw near an old Indian encampment a Swet [Sweat] house Covered wthh earth, at 2 miles assended a high hill & proceeded through a hilley and thickly timbered Countrey for 8 miles & on the Right [hand side] of the Creek, passing Several branches from the right of fine clear water and Struck at a fork [Grave Creek] at which place the road forks, one passing up each fork. The Timber is Short & long leaf Pine Spruce Pine & fur. The road through this hilley Countrey is verry bad passing over hills & thro' Steep hollows, over falling timber &c. &c. continued on & passed Some most intolerable road on the Sides of the Steep Stoney mountains, which might be avoided by keeping up the Creek which is thickly covered with under groth & falling timber Crossed a mountain 8 miles with out water & encamped on a hill Side on the Creek after Decending a long Steep mountain, [Two miles below (east of) Lolo Hot Springs.] Some of our Party did not git up untill 10 oClock P M. I mad camp at 8 on this roade & particularly on this Creek the Indians have pealed a number of Pine for the under bark which they eate at certain Seasons of the year, I am told in the Spring they make use of this bark [Ponderosa Pine has edible underbark] our hunters Killed only one Pheasent this after noon. Party and horses much fatigued.

[Short-leaf pine is likely Lodgpole Pine, Pinus contorta latifolia. Along the Jefferson River (See August 3, 1805) and earlier, the captains used the term short-leaf pine to refer to the Limber Pine. Now they are out of the range of Limber Pine, so short-leaf must refer to a new species, Lodgepole Pine. Long-leaf Pine remains Ponderosa Pine. Spruce Pine is Engelmann Spruce as discussed in notes for September 9. Gass used the term on September 14 and Whitehouse on September 16, when the party was in an area where Engelmann Spruce is the only logical tree of reference. Fir is either Subalpine Fir, Abies lasiocarpa or Douglas Fir, more likely the latter.]

[Clark]

Septr. 12th

N. W   11 miles to the forks of the Creek  road passing through a hilley countrey thickly timbered with the long leaf short leaf Spruce Pine  crossed 6 branches which runs form the left the 1st the largest  Killed 3 [illegible] this morning  Dined at the forks, passed a Hot hous covd with Earth on the 1st fork.
S. 75o W   12 miles to the Creek striking the creek at 4 mile and passing over a high mountain for 8 miles  no water  the hills steep & rockey & thickly timbered [one line illegible]

September 12, 1805
Patrick Gass

We started early on our journey and had a fine morning. Having travelled 2 miles we reached the mountains which are very steep; but the road over them pretty good, as it is much travelled by the natives, who come across to the Flathead river to gather cherries and berries. Our hunters in a short time killed 4 deer. At noon we halted at a branch of the creek, on the banks of which are a number of strawberry vines, haws, and service berry bushes. At 2 we proceeded on over a large mountain, where there is no water, and we could find no place to encamp until late at night, when we arrived at a small branch, and encamed by it, in a very inconvenient place, have come 23 miles.

September 12, 1805
John Ordway

a fair morning.  a white frost.  the hunters Set out eairly  we loaded and Set out Soon after and proceeded on  Soon took the Mountains  came up and down Several Steep places  crossed Several Small creeks and we descended a bad Step part of the Mout. and came down on the creek again and halted to dine  our hunters had killed this day 4 Deer and a pheasant  we dined and proceeded on  crossed 2 more creeks ascended up a mountain on a high ridge  a verry bad trail rough and rockey.  we found no water nor place to Camp [About 2 miles east of Lolo Hot Springs] untill 10 oClock at night. then descended a Steep part of the Mountain.  Came down on the creek which we left this morning or at noon and we had came 17 1/2 miles this day. and near Sd. creek where we could not find a level place to Sleep, and Scarcely any feed for our horses

September 12, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a white frost, and clear pleasnat morning. the hunters Set out eairly.  we loaded up and Set out soon after Sunrise, and proceeded on a Short distance.  then took the mountains covred with pitch pine.  went up and down a nomber of bad hills and mot.   crossed Several runs & about 1oClock P. m. we descended a bad part of the mot. nearly Steep  came down on the creek a gain, and halted to dine. [They traveled up Lolo Creek and nooned at Grave Creek, where the trail forks.]  our hunters has killed this day 4 Deer and a fessent.  we proceeded on crossed 2 more creeks, and assended a high rough mountain rockey & a verry rough trail to follow. we proced. on along the ridge which was covred with pitch pine timber. night came on and we had to go through the thickets of pine and over logs &c. untill about 10 oClock at in the evening before we could git any water. then descended a Steep part of the mountain down on the Creek which we left at noon, and Camped [About two miles east of Lolo Hot Springs.] on the bank of the creek where we had Scarsely room to Sleep. Came 17 1/2 miles this day. Saw high Mountains to the South of us covred with Snow, which appears to lay their all the year round. Scarsely any feed for our horses.

September 12, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

This morning Clear weather with white frost & our hunters went out early to hunt; We loaded up our horses, and set out on our Journey, soon after sun rise, & proceeded on a short distance & took up to the Mountains, which were on their Tops cover'd with Pitch pine trees. We then continued ascending & descending Mountains & bad hills & crossed several Runs.--

About 1 o'Clock P.M. we descended a bad part of the Mountains, which was nearly steep, & came down on the Creek which we had left,--  where we halted to dine & where our hunters came to us, & had killed 4 Deer & a Pheasant which they brought to us, We halted for one hour & proceeded on, and crossed 2 Creeks, and ascended a high rough rockey mountain, & followed a very rough trail.  We proceeded on along the ridge of one of these mountains which was covered with Pitch pine timber.  Night came on and we travelled in the dark, through thickets of pine Trees, & passed over logs & bad places untill about 10 o'Clock P.M. before we could get to a place where water was convenient to encamp at, which was at a steep part of the Mountain, which we descended down to a Creek, being the same which we had left at noon.  We encamped on this Creek, where we had scarcely Room to lay down to Sleep, <on> having come about 17 1/2 Miles this day.--  We found here, very little food for our horses, and saw Mountains this day which lay to the South of us covered with Snow, which lies on those Mountains during the whole Year.--

At this trail head is one of the roads to Petty Creek. It is located on Highway 12 at mile marker 14 better known as the Howard Creek junction to Petty Creek.  At mile marker 9 there is a sign which claims Lewis and Clark camped in this meadow September 12, 1805. The journals would place the location of this evenings camp not in the meadow but further up on the hillside.

N. 46o 44' 713"
W. 114o 31' 091"
Elevation: 4075 Feet

We arrived at Lee Creek Campground at 1:15 PM located at mile marker 7.   At this location Lewis and Clark crossed to the south side of Lolo Creek.

N. 46o 42' 301"
W. 114o 32' 193"
Elevation: 4310 Feet

We proceeded on to Lolo Summit where we arrived at 2:25 PM.  We spend a short time at this historic location and moved on to Packer Meadows.

LoloSummit1.jpg (99307 bytes)

N. 46o 38' 004"
W. 114o 34' 014"
Elevation: 5225 Feet

September 13, 1805
William Clark

a cloudy morning Capt Lewis and one of our guides lost their horses, Capt Lewis & 4 men detained to hunt the horses, I proceeded on with the partey up the Creek at 2 miles passed Several Springs which I observed the Deer Elk &c. had made roads to, and below one of the Indians had made a whole to bathe, I tasted this water and found it hot & not bad tasted The last [blank] in further examonation I found this water nearly boiling hot at the places it Spouted from the rocks (which a hard Corse Grit, and of great size the rocks on the Side of the Mountain of the Same texture[)] I put my finger in the water, at first could not bare it in a Second. [Lolo Hot Springs, MT.] as Several roads led from these Springs in different derections, my Guide took a wring road and took us out of our rout 3 miles through intolerable rout, after falling into the right road I proceeded on thro tolerabl rout for abt. 4 or 5 miles and halted to let our horses graze as well as waite for Capt Lewis who has not yet Come up, The pine Countrey falling timber &c. &c. Continue. This Creek is verry much damed up with the beaver, but we can See none, dispatched two men back to hunt Capt Lewis horse, after he came up, and we proceeded over a mountain to the head of the Creek which we left to our left and at 6 miles from the place I nooned it, we fell on a Small Creek from the left which Passed through open glades Some of which 1/2 a mile wide, [They crossed the present Montana-Idaho state line into Idaho, east of Lolo Pass, and went down Pack Creek (Glade Creek on Atlas map 70) to Packer Meadows. The camp was at the lower end of the meadows.] we proceeded down this Creek about 2 miles to where the mountains Closed on either Side crossing the Creek several times & Encamped.

One Deer & Some Pheasants killed this morning, I shot 4 Pheasents of the Common Kind except the taile was black [Spruce grouse, Dendragapus canadensis]. The road over the last mountain was thick Steep & Stoney as usial, after passing the head of Travelers rest Creek, the road was verry fine leavel open & firm Some mountains in view to the S E & S W. Covered with Snow [The Bitterroot Range].

[Clark]

Course & Distance &c. Sept. 13th 1805

S. W.   2 miles up the Said Creek through an emencely bad road, rocks, Steep hill sides & fallen timber inumerable  The Snow toped mountains at a long distance from S W to S E none else to be Seen in any other Directions to hot Springs on the right. Those springs come out in maney places in the rocks and nearly boiling hot
S. 30o W.   3 miles to the creek  passed a round about of 3 miles to our left of intolerable road timber &c as usial  halted to noon it & wate for Capt. Lewis who lost his horse
S. 30o W.   7  miles over a mountain & a Dividing ridge of flat gradey land to a creek from the left passing thro a glade of 1/2 a mile in width, keeping down the Creek 2 mile & Encamped. The Country as usial except the Glades which is open & boggey, water Clare and Sandey, Snow toped Mountians to the S E. at the head of this Creek which we call [blank] Creek. The after part of the day Cloudy. I killed 4 Pheasents & Shields [John Shields] killed a Black Tail Deer.  a horse found in the glades left lame by Some Indians &c.

m

  12

September 13, 1805
Patrick Gass

A cloudy morning. Capt. Lewis's horse could not be found; but some of the men were left to hunt for him and we proceeded on. When we had gone 2 miles, we came to a most beautiful warm spring, the water of which is considerably above blood-heat; and I could not bear my hand in it without uneasiness. There are so many paths leading to and from this spring, that our guide took a wrong one for a mile or two, and we had bad travelling across till we got into the road again. At noon we halted. Game is scarce; and our hunters hilled nothing since yesterday morning; though 4 of the best were constantly out, and every one of them furnished with a good horse. While we remained here, Captain Lewis and the men, who had been left with him, came up; but had not found the horse. At 2 o'clock we proceeded on again over a mountain, and in our way found a deer, which our hunters had killed and hung up. In a short time we met with them, and Capt. Lewis sent two back to look for the horse. We passed over a dividing ridge to the waters of antoher creek, and after travelling 12 miles we encamped on the creek, up which there are some prairies or plains.

September 13, 1805
John Ordway

cloudy. we got all our horses up except one which Capt Lewis rode we could not find, and a colt also. we then loaded our horses and proceeded on a Short distance and came to a warm Spring [Lolo Hot Springs] which run from a ledge of rocks and nearly boiled and issued out in several places  it had been frequented by the Savages. a little dam was fixed and had been used for a bathing place.  we drank a little of the water and washed our faces in it. a handsome green on the creek near this Spring. we had Some difficulty here in finding the direct trail. we went round a bad way came on the trail again and halted to dine at or near the head of Sd. Creek at a beaver dam.  then proceeded on ascended a high rough mountain  over took the hunters who had killed a deer.   2 of them sent back to look for Capt. Lewises horse.  we crossed the dividing ridge [They crossed from Montana back into Idaho near Lolo Pass and followed Pack Creek down to Packer Meadows] and a number of Springs runs and found it to be only about half a mile from the head Spring of the waters running East to the head Spring of the waters runing west. each heading in an open marshy Swamp which is level and full of Springs. we came on a creek running west on which we Camped.-- [At the lower end of Packer Meadows.]

September 13, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

cloudy.  we got our horses up all but the one Capt. Lewis rode and a colt which our young Indian rode.  we hunted Some time for them but could not find them.   then all but 2 or three loaded the horses and proceeded on  a Short distance passed a warm Spring, [Lolo Hot Springs.] which nearly boiled where it Issued out of the rocks  a Short distance below the natives has dammed it up to bathe themselves in, and the water in that place is considerable above blood heat.  it runs out in Sundry places and Some places cooler than others.  Several of us drank of the water, it has a little sulp[h]ur taste and verry clear. these Springs are very beautiful to See, and we think them to be as good to bathe in &c. as any other ever yet found in the United States.  a handsom green or Small meadow on the creek near Sd. Springs.  a little above we could not git along the Indian trail for the timber which had been blown down in a thicket of pine &c.  So we went around a hill came on the trail again and proceeded on untill about 11 oClock and halted to dine and let our horses feed on the main fork of the creek where was Several beaver dams.   Capt. Lewis and the men who Stayed back to hunt their horses joined us, but had not found them  our hunters gone on a head   the mountains rough and rocks which appear above the timber like towers in Some places.  the day proved pleasant.   we proceeded on assended a high mountain, over took the hunters.  they had killed a Deer.  2 of them Sent back after Capt. Lewiss horse.  we crossed the dividing ridge found it only about half a mile from the head Spring of the water running East to a branch running west.  eaqch heading on an open Swamp, which is level and full of Springs.  Came [blank] miles this day and Camped [They crossed the Montana-Idaho state line east of Lolo Pass, and went down Pack Creek (their Glade Creek) to Packer Meadows, camping at the lower end of the meadows.] on the branch running west where we had good feed for our horses.

September 13, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

We had Cloudy weather; We got up all our Horses, but the one that Captain Lewis had rode & a Colt which was rode by the Young Indian, who attended our Interpreter; which we had got from the Snake Nation of Indians

The men all turned out to hunt for this horse & Colt, but returned to us without success.  We on the return of our Men loaded our horses with our Goods & baggage excepting 3 which we left for Men, to ride & seek the lost horses, we proceeded on our way a short distance when we came to a Warm spring, where the water was nearly boiling hot, where it issued out of the Rocks.  We found a short distance below that place a dam, which the Natives had made in Order to stop the Water, that they might have a bathing place. the water at this Bath was considerable above blood heat, this bath run out at different places, some of which was considerable cooler than others.--  Several of our party drank of the Water that was in this Bath, it had strongly the taste of Sulphur, & was very clear.  The same kind of Sulphurous springs are to be found near this place, & has a handsome appearance, Our officers were of opinion that those Springs were very healthy to bathe in; Near this spring run lies a very handsome Creek, with a very handsome Meadow lying along it, & this Meadow lay near to the Spring, & a small distance above it--  We could not get along the Indian trail, for the timber that had been blown down in a thicket of Pine & other Trees.--  We went round this falling timber, and round a hill, and got into the road again.  We proceeded on our Journey 'till about 11 o'Clock A.M. when we halted to dine & let our horses feed which was on the Main fork of the Creek,--  where we saw several beaver dams, Captain Lewis & the Men that staid behind to hunt the horses joined us, but they had not found them.  Our hunters went on ahead to hunt, 'till the evening.  The Mountains we found this day were very rough, and Rocks, which appear above the timber like Towers.--   The day proved very pleasant, and we proceeded on, & ascended a high mountain; & overtook our hunters who had killed a deer, Captain Lewis sent back 2 of these hunters, to hunt for his Horse & the Colt which was lost--  We proceeded on, and crossed the dividing ridge, & found it only about half a mile from the head of a spring where the Water run on east Course, to a branch of Water which run a West course, each heading in an Open Swamp which lies level & abounds with Springs.  We came only 18 Miles this day & encamped on the branch which run a West course; where we found good Grass for our horses.--

Packer1.jpg (66259 bytes)

N. 46o 38' 279"
W. 114o 33' 239"
Elevation: 5242 Feet

June 29, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

near the river we f[o]und a deer which the hunters had killed and left us. this was a fortunate supply as all our oil was now exhausted and we were reduced to our roots alone without salt. ... warm springs ... the prinsipal spring is about the temperature of the warmest baths used at the hot springs in Virginia. In this bath which had been prepared by the Indians by stoping the run with stone and gravel, I baithed and remained in 19 minutes, it was with dificulty I could remain thus long and it caused a profuse sweat two other bold springs adjacent to this are much warmer, their heat being so great as to make the hand of a person smart extreemly when immerced. ... both the men and indians amused themselves with the use of a bath this evening. I observed that the indians after remaining in the hot bath as long as they could bear it ran and plunged themslves into the creek the water of which is now as cold as ice can make it; after remaining here a few minutes they returned again to the warm bath, repeating this transision several times but always ending with the warm bath.

June 29, 1806
John Ordway

a fair morning.  we got up our horses eairly two hunters went on a head.    the fog rose up thick from the hollars.  we proceeded on a ridge desended down on a fork of Collinses Creek took the meat of a deer the hunters had killed crossed the creek above the forks Some distance ascended a high mountn. came in the old road we went in last year & proceed. on [The party traveled eastward along the ridge to Rocky Point, then descended to Crooked Fork Creek and crossed it a mile or so above the entrance of Brushy Creek. Then they turned to the northeast and climbed a ridge to pick up their trail of the previous year]   had a Shower of hail and Thunder.   about 1 oClock P. M. we arived at the glades of the rockey mountn. [Packer Meadows on Pack (Glade) Creek]   Crossed glade Creek Several times and halted at a handsom flat of grass and Commass.   found that 2 of our horses got left back on the road   2 men [Joseph Field & John Colter] went back for them   Shields killed 2 crains   we dined and proceed. on   Soon came on the head waters of travvellers rest Creek. [Lolo Creek]   towards evening we arived at the hot Stream where we Camped. [Lolo Hot Springs]   the 2 men came up with the 2 horses.   had killed one deer.   a number of the party as well as myself bathed in these hot Springs, but the water so hot [111oF] that it makes the Skin Smart when I first entered it. I drank Some of the water also.--

June 29, 1806
Patrick Gass

There was a foggy morning. We set out early, proceeded over some bad hills, and came to the old path; at which time there was a shower of rain, with hail, thunder and lightening, that lasted about an hour. At 10 o'clock we left the snow, and in the evening we arrived at the warm spring [Lolo Hot Springs]; where we encamped for the night, and most of us bathed in its water. One of our hunters killed a deer where we dined at the glades or plains on Glade creek; and where there is good grass, and com-mas also grows. Two other hunters went on ahead and killed another deer on the way.

Packer2.jpg (71507 bytes) Packer3.jpg (84517 bytes)

At Packer Meadows the Corp of Rediscovery stopped at 12:30 PM to examine examples of camas seeds and bulbs.  Being late in the summer the blue flower of a blooming plant was not to be found.  They are quite impressive in the spring of the year.

GladeCreek1.jpg (84824 bytes)

N. 46o 37' 236"
W. 114o 34' 558"
"Glade Creek" Campsite Sign

GladeCreek2.jpg (83103 bytes)

N. 46o 37' 351"
W. 114o 34' 489"
Elevation: 5195 Feet

The picture above was taken approximately 50 yards below the road where the "Glade Creek Campsite" sign was located.  This location is the southwestern portion of Packer Meadows.

We retraced our route back to Lolo Summit and proceeded on to the Lolo Trail Crossing where we arrived at 4:10 PM.

LoloTrailCrossing1.jpg (109033 bytes)

N. 46o 35' 882"
W. 114o 35' 691"

From this location we proceeded on to DeVoto Memorial Cedars where we arrived at 4:20 PM.

MemorialGrove1.jpg (118768 bytes)

N. 46o 32' 388"
W. 114o 40' 549"
Elevation: 3640 Feet

We proceeded on to 13 Mile Creek where the Corp of Discovery camped on a grassy hillside June 28, 1806 on the return journey.  To reach this site you take Parachute Hill Road (Mountain Trail 500) to Papoose Saddle.  The location of the following sign is 1/2 mile East of Powell Junction 5872.

ThirteenMile1.jpg (89680 bytes)

A short 1/3 mile walk will take you to an area generally described in the journals.

N. 46o 34' 739"
W. 114o 43' 327"
Elevation: 6068 Feet

ThirteenMile2.jpg (109409 bytes)

June 27, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

from this place we had an extensive view of these stupendous mountains principally covered with snow like that on which we stood; we were entirely surrounded by those mountains from which to one unacquainted with them it would have seemed impossible ever to have escaped; in short without the assistance of our guides I doubt much whether we who had once passed them could find our way to Travellers rest in their present situation for the marked trees on which we had placed considerable reliance are much fewer and more difficult to find than we had apprehended. ... we encamped for the night having traveled 28 miles over these mountains without releiving the horses from their packs or their having any food. ... our meat being exhausted we issued a pint of bears oil to a mess which with their boiled roots made an agreeable dish.

June 27, 1806
John Ordway

a fair morning.  we took an eairly breakfast and  proceeded on verry fast over over the high banks of Snow   the most part of the day and bad mountains.    we came further to day than we went in 2 when we came over.   and Camped [On Spring Hill, or Spring Mountain] on the South Side of a mountain where our horses find a little grass.   the day warm and Snow melts fast.--

June 27, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had a cloudy morning and at 8 o'clock we renewed our march, proceeding over some of the steepest mountains I ever passed. The snow is so deep that we cannot wind along the sides of these steeps, but must slide straight down. The horses generally do not sink more than three inches in the snow; but sometimes they break through to their bellies. We kept on without halting to about 5 o'clock in the evening, when we stopped at the side of a hill where the snow was off, and where there was a little grass; and we here encamped for the night. The day was pleasant throughout; but it appeared to me somewhat extraordinary, to be travelling over snow six or eight feet deep in the latter end of June. The most of us, however, had saved our socks as we expected to find snow on these mountains.

June 28, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

the water was distant from our encampment we therefore melted snow and used the water principally. ... we find the traveling on the snow not worse than without it, as the easy passage it gives us over rocks and fallen timber fully compensate for the inconvenience of sliping, certain it is that we travel considerably faster on the snow than without it.

June 28, 1806
John Ordway

a fair cool morning.  we Set out as usal and proceeded on  [four words illegible] the vallies on to the ridge [thick?] 2 hunters went on a head to hunt.   we descended a mountn. down on a fork of Collinses Creek, found the meat of a deer which one of the hunters had killed.   we crossed the creek and ascended  a high Steep mountn.   came in [our old] road   had a bad Shower of hail and [Some?] Thunder.

June 28, 1806
Patrick Gass

The morning was pleasant, we set out early, and passed the place where we had encamped on the 15th Sept. last when the snow fell on us. After passing this place about a mile, we took a left hand path, and travelled along high ridges till noon, when we came to a good place of grass; where we halted and remained all the afternoon to let our horses feed, as they had but little grass last night. Some hunters went out, as we saw some elk signs here, and our meat is exhausted. We still have a good stock of roots, which we pound and make thick soup of, that eats very well. In the evening our hunters came in but had not killed any thing. On the south side of this ridge there is summer with grass and other herbage in abundance; and on the north side, winter with snow six or eight feet deep.

We again retrograded our journey back to Highway 12 where we set up camp for the evening at Wendover Campground.  Upon completion of that task we proceeded on to the Lochsa Lodge and had a ribeye steak "to die for", according to our waitress.  It was very good.  We returned to camp where we discussed the travels of Lewis and Clark over a bottle of Bushmill Irish Whiskey.  Retired Late.

Tuesday August 5, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Arose at 8:00 AM rounded up the horses (auto) and proceeded on to Lochsa Lodge for provisions and an informational  meeting.

LochsaLodge1.jpg (102871 bytes)

At 8:45 AM we arrived at an island 2 miles below Colt Killed Creek where the Corp of Discovery spent the 14th of September, 1805.  The campsite was on the north side of the Lochsa River and the present site of Powell Ranger Station.

Powell1.jpg (121864 bytes)

N. 46o 30' 598"
W. 114o 42' 656"

Powell2.jpg (98474 bytes)

September 14, 1805
William Clark

a Cloudy day in the valies it rained and hailed, on the top of the mountains Some Snow fell  we Set out early and Crossed a high mountn on the right of the Creek for 6 miles to the forks of the Glade Creek [Brushy Creek, on the left, and Crooked Fork, on the right. Atlas map 69, 70.] [NB: one of the heads of the Koos koos kee] [Nicholas Biddle's insertion refers to the captains' name for the Clearwater River; actually the stream is the Lochsa, which the captains considered a fork of the Clearwater. Atlas map 70.] the right hand fork which falls in <from> is about the Size of the other, we Crossed to the left Side at the foks, [Crossing Brushy Creek.] and Crossd a verry high Steep mountain for 9 miles to a large fork from the left [They called it Colt Killed or Killed Colt Creek; present White Sand Creek. Atlas map 70.] which appears to head in the Snow toped mountins Southerley and S. E.  we Crossd. Glade Creek above its mouth, [Crossing Lochsa River.] at a place the Tushepaws or Flat head Indians have made 2 wears across to Catch Sammon and have but latterly left the place  I could se no <Signs of> fish, and the grass entirely eaten out by the horses, we proceeded on 2 miles & encamped opposit a Small Island [The camp was on the north bank of the Lochsa River, some two miles below the mouth of White Sand (Killed Colt) Creek, near Powell Ranger Station. In going down into the valley of the Lochsa they had, probably by an error of their guide, deviated from the Lolo Trail, which follows the ridge tops. This would make the journey more difficult and probably about a day longer. Atlas map 70.] at the mouth of a branch on the right side of the river which is at this place 80 yards wide, Swift and Stoney, here we were compelled to kill a Colt for our men & Selves to eat for the want of meat & we named the South fork Colt killed Creek, and this river we Call Flathead River-- [WC: The flat head name is Koos koos ke R] [Again, the Lochsa River at this point and again a later insertion by Clark. "Flathead" apparently refers to the Nez Perces, not the Salish of Montana. The word "Flathead" appears to have been inserted in place of an erased word.] The Mountains which we passed to day much worst than yesterday the last excesssively bad & Thickly Strowed with falling timber & Pine Spruc fur Hackmatak & Tamerack, [The major trees growing at higher elevations here are the ones noted by Clark: Lodgepole Pine, Engelmann Spruce, and Subalpine Fir. In the course table Clark uses the term "Pitch pine" for the Lodgepole Pine, referring to the eastern species with which he was familiar, Pinus rigida. Earlier references to pitch-pine designated different species, but here Lodgepole Pine is appropriate. The last two named are apparently the same tree, known variously as Western, Montana, or Mountain, Larch, hackmatack, and tamarack, Larix occidentalis.] Steep & Stoney    our men and horses much fatigued, The rain [blank]

[Clark]

Course Distance &c. Septr. 14th 1805

S. 20o W.   6 miles over a high <hilly> mountain Countrey thickley Covered with pine to the forks <passed> of the Creek one of equal Size from the right Side, passed much falling timber this <hi> Mountain is covered with Spruce & Pitch pine fir, & what is called to the Northard hackmatack & Tamerack, The Creeks verry stoney and has much fall
S. 60o W.   9 miles over a high mountian Steep & almost inaxcessible much falling timber which <cause the> fatigues our men a horses exceedingly, in Slipping over So great a number of logs added to the Steep assents and decents of the Mounts. to the forks of the Creek, the one on our left which we had passed down falling into one Still larger from the left which heads in the Snowey Mountains to the S. E. & South, those two Creeks form a rive of 80 yards wide, Containing much water, verry Stoney and rapid. The Creek we Came Down I call Glade Creek, the left hand fork the Killed Colt Creek from our Killing a Colt to eate, abov th mouth of Glade fork, the Flatheads has a were across to catch sammon [one line missing, page damaged]
S. 70o W   2   miles down the [blank] River to the mouth of a run on the right Side opposit an Island & camped  turned our horses on the Island   rained Snowed & hailed the greater part of the day all wet and Cold

m

  17

September 14, 1805
Patrick Gass

We set out early in a cloudy morning; passed over a large mountain, crossed Stony creek, about 30 yards wide, and then went over another large mountain, on which I saw serviceberry bushes hanging full of fruit; but not yet ripe, owing to the coldness of the climate on these mountains: I also saw a number of other shrubs, which bear fruit, but for which I know no names. There are black elder and bore-tree, pitch and spruce pine all growing together on these mountains. Being here unable to find a place to halt at, where our horses could fee, we went on to the junction of Stony creek, with another large creek, which a short distance down becomes a considerable river, and encamped for the night, as it rained and was disagreeable travelling. The two hunters, that had gone back here joined us with Capt. Lewis's horse, but  none of the hunters killed any thing except 2 or 3 pheasants; on which, without a miracle it was impossible to feed 30 hungry men and upwards, besides some Indians. So Capt. Lewis gave out some portable soup, which he had along, to be used in cases of necessity. Some of the men did not relish this soup, and agreed to kill a colt; which they immediately did, [This took place on Colt Killed (now White Sand) Creek, on the Lochsa River, near the Powell Ranger Station] and set about roasting it; and which appeared to me to be good eating.

September 14, 1805
John Ordway

we Set out as usal, and ascended a mountain about 4 miles, then descended it down to on the forks of the creek [Brushy Creek & Crooked Fork, Idaho] where it ran verry rapid and is full of rocks.  we then assended a verry high mountain about 4 miles further to the top of it and verry step. Came Some distance on the top then descended down about 6 miles  Some places verry Steep. came down on another fork where the creek [Crooked Fork & Colt Killed Creek (White Sand Creek) merge to form the Lochsa River, Their camp was on the north bank of the Lochsa, about two miles from where the streams merge and in the area of Powell Ranger Station.]  is got to be verry large.  the Savages had a place fixed across the River and worked in with willows where they catch a great quantity of Sammon in the Spring, as our guide tells us.  we Crossed the  right hand fork where it was very rapid.  we proceed on had nothing to eat but Some portable Soup   we being hungry for meat as the Soup did not Satisfy we killed a fat colt which eat verry well at this time a little Thunder hail and rain. Saw high Mountains covred with Snow and timber.

September 14, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a cloudy morning. we eat the last of our meat, and Set out as usal. ascended a mountain covred with pine. abt. 4 miles we descended it down on the Creek at a fork [Brushy Creek (Gass's Stony Creek) and Crooked Fork] where it ran very rapid and full of rocks. we then ascended a verry high mountain, about 4 miles from the forks of the creek to the top of it   went Some distance on the top then descended it about 6 miles. Some places verry Steep.  came down at another fork of the Creek [Crooked Fork and Colt Killed creeks (formerly White Sand Creek but now restored to Lewis and Clark's name) merge to form the Lochsa River] where it was considr. larger.   the Natives had a place made across in form of our wires [weirs]   in 2 places, and worked in with willows  erry injeanously, for the current verry rapid.  we crossed at the forks and proceeded on down the creek.  passed Several late Indian Encampments.  our <Intrepter> Guide tells us that the natives catcch a great nomber of Sammon along here.  we went down the creek abt. 4 miles and Camped [On the north bank of the Lochsa, some two miles below the mouth of Colt Killed Creek, near Powell Ranger Station.] for the night.  Eat a little portable Soup, [Lewis purchased this soup in Philadelphia; it may have been kept in the form of dry powder or thick liquid. It was staple army rations of the time.] but the men in jeneral So hungry that we killed a fine Colt which eat verry well, at this time. we had Several light Showers of rain and a little hail.  Several claps of Thunder, we came in all [blank] miles this day.  the 2 hunters joined us with Capt. Lewis horse which had been lost.  Saw high mountan. a little to the South of us, which are covred with Snow.  the most of these mountains are covred with pine.  Saw Some tall Strait Siprass, or white ceeder [The words, "or white ceeder" appear to have been interlined in another hand, perhaps as a correction to Whitehouse's cypress. It is western redcedar, Thuja plicata.] to day.  the Soil indifferent, and verry   broken.  the Countrey all mountaineous.  our hunters found a Stray horse on the road.   a Small Indian horse came to us this evening.

September 14, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

A Cloudy Morning, & we did not set out till we had breakfasted, at which we eat the last of our Meat; we then proceeded on our Journey, and ascended a Mountain which was cover'd with Pine timber, and was about 4 Miles from where it began to ascend to the top; we descended this mountain; & came down to a Creek on a fork of it; at this place the Water run rapid, & it was very full of Rocks.--  We ascended then, another Mountain; which was about 4 Miles from the fork we left to the top of it.--

We continued on our way on the top of this mountain where we had a most delightful prospect of the Hills & Vallies which lay below us, & then descended this Mountain about 6 Miles, which in some places, we found very steep, and came down on another fork of the Creek, which we last left, which was considerable larger, the Natives had here made places across this fork of the Creek, in the form of Weirs to catch fish in, which we found in 2 different parts of this fork, it was worked in with willows very ingeniously & strong, the current running very rapid at where these Weirs were set.--  We crossed below this place at where the Creek forked, and proceeded on down the creek and passed several Indian encampments, which the Natives had lately left.  Our guide informed us, that the Natives catch great Quantities of Salmon at this place, We went down this Creek about 4 Miles & encamped.  the Men here eat a little portable Soup, but still are all very hungry.--  Our officers concluded on having a fine Colt that we had along with us killed, which was done, & hunger made us all think that it eat delecious, We had towards Evening several small Showers of rain, some hail & several severe Claps of thunder, The hunters that went after Captain Lewis's horse & the Colt, joined us in the Evening; they had found the horse only, We saw in the course of this days travel, several Mountains, which were covered with Snow which lay to the South of us.--

The Tops of most of these Mountains are cover'd with pine, & tall white Cedar Trees.  The Soil during this days travell is very indifferent, and the Country broken & very mountaineous.  Our Hunters found a stray horse on the Path, & a small Indian horse came to our Camp in the evening.--  We came about 18 Miles this day.--

We proceeded on and arrived at Whitehouse Pond at 9:10 AM.

Whitehouse1.jpg (106554 bytes)

N. 46o 30' 603"
W. 114o 46' 789"

Whitehouse2.jpg (111458 bytes)

September 15, 1805
William Clark

We set out early.  the morning Cloudy and proceeded on Down the right Side of [NB: Koos koos kee] River over Steep points rockey & buschey as usial for 4 miles to an old Indian fishing place, here the road leaves the river to the left and assends a mountin winding in every direction to get up the Steep assents [They went down the north side of the Lochsa, paralleling modern U.S. Highway 12, to about the present location of Wendover Campground, ID, then turning north along Wendover Ridge to climb back to the Lolo Trail.] & to pass the emence quantity of falling timber which had flling from dift. causes e e. fire & wind and has deprived the Greater part of the Southerley Sides of this mountian of its gren timber, 4 miles up the mountain I found a Spring and halted for the rear to come up and to let our horses rest & feed, about 2 hours the rear of the party came up much fatigued & horses more So, Several horses Sliped and roled down Steep hills which hurt them verry much the one which Carried my desk & Small trunk Turned over & roled down a mountain for 40 yards & lodged against a tree, broke the desk the horse escaped and appeared but little hurt    Some others verry much hurt, from this point I observed a range of high mountains Covered with Snow from S E. to S W with Their top bald or void of timber. [The Bitterroot Range.]  after two hours delay we proceeded on up the mountain Steep & ruged as usial, more timber near the top, when we arrived at the top As we Conceved, we could find no water and Concluded to Camp [They camped near the point where they rejoined the Lolo Trail near present Forest Service Road #500.] and make use of the Snow we found on the top to cook the remns. of our Colt & make our Supe, evening verry cold and cloudy. Two of our horses gave out, pore and too much hurt to proceed on and left in the rear--  nothing killed to day except 2 Phests.

From this mountain I could observe high ruged mountains in every direction as far as I could see.  with the greatest exertion we Could only make 12 miles up this mountain and encamped on the top of the mountian near a Bank of old Snow about 3 feet deep lying on the Northern Side of the <hills> mountain and in Small banks on the top & leavel parts of the mountain, we melted the Snow to drink, and Cook our horse flesh to eat.

[Clark]

September 15th Friday 1805

West   4 miles down the Creek bottoms Passing over 4 Steep high hills to a run at an old Indian Camp at a fishing place, where we wer Some time e'er, we found the proper road which assends a high mountain  road excessively bad. Take the wrong road*
N. W.   4 miles assending a high Steep ruged Mountain winding in every direction, the timber has been burnt & lies in every direction, Several horses rolld down much hurt  my portable desk broken, from the top of those mountains a Snow mountain from S E to S W.  we leave the river to our left hand, found a Spring on the top of the mountain where we halted to Dine & wate for the party.  rained
N. W.   4 miles assend a Steep ruged mountain passing over high Stoney knobs maney parts bare of timber, the[y] haveing burnt it down & as it lies on the ground in every direction we could find no water deturmd to Camp as it was late and make use of Snow for to boil our Coalt meat & make Supe.  we Camped on a high Pinical of the mountain  Two of our horses gave out to day and left.  the road as bad as it can possibly be to pass.
  12

September 15, 1805
Patrick Gass

Having breakfasted on colt, we moved on down the river 3 miles, and again took the mountains. In going up, one of the horses fell, and required 8 or 10 men to assist him in getting up again. We continued our march to 2 o'clock when we halted at a spring and dined on portable soup and a handful of parched corn. We then proceeded on our journey over the mountains to a high point, where, it being dark, we were obliged to encamp. There was here no water; but a bank of snow answered as a substitute; and we supped upon soup.

September 15, 1805
John Ordway

cloudy.  we Set out as usal and proceeded on a Short distance down the creek.   crossed Several Small creeks and Swampy places covred with tall handsome white ceeder and Spruce pine &C.-- [White cedar is western redcedar, Thuja plicata, Spruce pine is Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmanii]    we crossed a creek a pond a little below [Whitehouse pond, on U.S. Highway 12, west of Powell Ranger Station] then assended a high Mountain [Wendover Ridge] Some places so Steep and rockey that Some of our horses fell backwards and roled 20 or 30 feet among the rocks, but did not kill them. we got on the ridge of the mountain and followed it.  came over several verry high knobs where the timber had been mostly blown down.  we found a small spring before we came to the highest part of the mountain where we halted and drank a little portable Soup and proceeded on to the top of the mount found it to be abot. 10 miles from the foot to the top of sd. mount and most of the way very Steep.  we travvelled untill after dark in hopes to find water. but could not find any. we found Some Spots of Snow so we Camped on the top of the Mountain [Near Forest Road 500] and melted Some Snow.   this Snow appears to lay all the year on this Mount   we drank a little portable Soup and lay down without any thing else to Satisfy our hunger.  cloudy and cold   this mountain and all these Mountains are covred thick with different kinds of pine timber. Some high rocks appear abo. the timber

September 15, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

cloudy.  we loaded up our horses and Set out at 7 oClock, and proceeded on down the creek a Short distance  crossed Several Springs and Swampy places covred with white ceeder and tall handsom Spruce pine, [Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii] which would be excelent for boaards or Shingles.  we crossed a creek a Small pond [Whitehouse Pond, a short distance west of Powell Ranger Station.] a little below, then asscended a high mountain. [They traveled down the Lochsa River, parallel to U.S. Highway 12, then north along Wendover Ridge up to the Lolo Trail.]  Some places So Steep and rockey that Several of the horses fell backward and roled down among the rocks 20 or 30 feet but did not kill them. we got on to the ridge of the mot. and followed it riseing over Several high knobs, where the wind had blown down the most of the timber. we found a Small Spring before we came to the highest part of the mountain where we halted and drank a little portable Soup, and proceeded on up on the top of the mountain, which is covred with timber Spruce &c. and Some Spots of Snow and high clifts of rocks. it is about 10 miles from the foot of this mountain to the top and the most of the way verry Steep. we marched on top of this mountain untill after dark in hopes to find water, but could not find any, So we Camped on the top ridge of the mountain without finding any water, but found plean[ty] of Snow, which appear to have lain all the year   we melted what we wanted to drink and made or mixd. a little portable Soup with Snow water and lay down contented.   had come [blank] miles to day.

September 15, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

This morning we had Cold weather, & cloudy, We set out on our Jouney about 7 oClock A.M. with all our horses loaded.  we proceeded on down the Creek a short distance, and crossed several springs & swampey places, covered with white Cedar & tall Spruce pine.  We crossed a Creek & a small pond which lay a small distance below it.  We then ascended a high mountain; which in some places was so steep & rockey, that several of our horses fell backward, and rolled down among the Rocks between 20 & 30 feet, but none of them were killed in the fall, We went on, and got on the Ridge of the Mountain.  We followed on the ridge of the Mountain & went over several high knobs on it, where the Wind had blown down the most of the timber on them.   We found a small spring of water, before we came to the highest part of the Mountain; Where we halted & drank some portable soup, We proceeded on, still on the top of the Mountain which was covered with Spruce Trees & some small Spots of Snow on it, & high clifts of rocks.  This mountain is about ten Miles, from the foot of it, to the top,--  & the most part of the way very steep.--

We proceeded on our way on the top of this mountain, untill after dark, in hopes of finding water, but was not fortunate enough to find any.  We encamped on the top ridge of the Mountain, where we found plenty of Snow, which from appearance had lain there during the whole Year; we melted Snow to drink & make some portable Soup, which was goven to all the party & they all retired to rest semingly content.--  We came about 10 Miles this day.--

whitehouse3.jpg (116809 bytes)

In the center of the picture above, taken at Whitehouse Pond, is a cow moose watching the Corp of Rediscovery. 

From Whitehouse Pond we proceeded on to "Colgate Lick" and arrived at 9:25 AM.  This site is unrelated to the travels of Lewis and Clark but is of interest as this is near the location where George Colgate was left by his hunting party, the Carlin Party, to die in the winter of 1893. A large natural mineral deposit is located here.

N. 46o 27' 874"
W. 114o 56' 424"
Elevation: 3002 Feet

We proceeded on to the "Sinque Hole" where it is believed the Corp of Discovery spent September 17, 1805 and possibly June 26, 1806.

SinqueHole1.jpg (84769 bytes)

September 17, 1805
William Clark

Cloudy morning  our horses much Scattered which dtained us untill one oClock P.M. at which time we Set out the falling Snow & Snow <falling> from the trees which kept us wet all the after noon  passed over Several high ruged Knobs and Several dreans & Springs passing to the right, & passing on the ridge devideing the waters of two Small rivers. [Possibly Gravey and Serpent Creeks.]  road excessively bad  Snow on the Knobs, no Snow in the vallies  Killed a fiew Pheasents which was not sufficient for our Supper which compelled us to kill Something.    a Coalt being the most useless part of our Stock he fell a Prey to our appetites.  The after part of the day fare, we made only 10 miles to day  two horses fell & hurt themselves very <well> much.  we Encamped on the top of a high Knob of the mountain at a run passsing to the left. [Whitehouse says they camped at a "round deep Sinque hole full of water." The description fits a site on the first saddle east of Indian Grave Peak, ID. Atlas map 70.]  we proceed on as yesterday, & with dificulty found the road

[Clark]

Course Dist &c. 17th Septr 1805 Sunday

S. 50o W.   12 miles over high knobs of the mountain  passed three Dreans to right and Encamped on one to the left. Springs at all those drians &. road emencely bad as usial, no Snow in the hollers  all the high knobs of the mounts Covered  passed on a Divideing ridge on which we had to Cross over emensely high Knobs.  roads bad   Killed a few Phesants only. Killd. a colt to eate.

September 17, 1805
Patrick Gass

Our horses scattered so much last night, that they were not collected until noon, at which time we began our march again. It was a fine day with warm sunshine, which melted the snow very fast on the south sides of the hills, and made the travelling very fatiguing and uncomfortable. We continued over high desert mountains, where our hunters could find no game, nor signs of any except a bear's tract which they observed to day -- At dark we halted at a spring on the top of a mountain; killed another colt, and encamped there all night.

September 17, 1805
John Ordway

Cloudy and cold  we went out to look for our horses  found Some of them much Scattered.  we did not find them all untill about 12 oClock at which time we Set out and proceeded on.  the Snow melted of[f] the timber. the trail verry rough  we came up and down bad Steep places of the Mountain, the afternoon clear and pleasant & warm. the Snow melted fast.  the water Stood on the trail over our mockns Some places Slippery. we assended a steep high rockey part of the Mountain high rocks and high pricipicies.  we Camped on this Mountain at a small creek and dry pine timber [Near Indian Grave Peak]   we being verry hungry oblidged us to kill another colt the last we had.   one of the hunters chased a bear up the Mountain but could not kill it. we hear wolves howl some distance a head.

September 17, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

cloudy and cold.  we went out to hunt our horses, but found them much Scatered.   the mare which owned the colt, which we killed, went back & led 4 more horses back to where we took dinner yesterday.  the most of the other horses found Scatd. on the mountain, but we did not find them all untill 12 oClock at which time we Set out and proceeded on.  the Snow lay heavy on the timber.  passee along a rough road up and down the mountains  descended down a Steep part of the moutn.  the afternoon clear & warm.  the Snow melted So that the water Stood in the trail over our mockasons in Some places.  verry Slippery bad travvelling for our horses.  we assended verry high mountains verry rockey.  Some bald places on the top of the mountn.  high rocks Standing up, & high precepices &c.  these motn. mostly covred with Spruce pine & bolsom fer timber.  crossed Several creeks or Spring runs in the Course of the day Came about [blank] miles this day, and Camped [East of Indian Grave Peak] at a Small branch on the mountain near a round deep Sinque hole full of water.  we being hungry obledged us to kill the other Sucking colt to eaet.  one of the hunters chased a bear in a mountn. but killed nothing.  we expect that their is game near a head.  we her wolves howl & Saw Some deer Sign &c.

September 17, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

We had a cold Cloudy morning, the Men were sent out to hunt our horses, they found them, but they were much scattered, The Mare whose colt we had kill'd Yesterday, went back to where we halted Yesterday, to refresh ourselves, (or eat portable Soup) and took 4 of our horses with her, the other of our horses were found scattered on the Mountain & the whole of them were not found 'till 12 oClock A.M.  We then set out, and proceeded on our Journey, the Snow laying heavy on the trees.  We passed along a rough path, which was up & down the Mountain; & descended a steep part of the same, In the afternoon the weather cleared away, & then it became clear and warm, the Snow melted fast, & the water stood in the trail over our Moccasins, & in some places it was very Slippy, the travelling was very bad for ourselves & horses, We ascended some very high mountains, & very rockey paths & many bare places on the Mountains & high Rocks Standing upright on them.--

These mountains were chiefly covered with Spruce pine, & balsam fir timber.   In the course of this day we crossed several Creek & Spring runs, lying in the hollows of the Mountains.  We came about 16 Miles this day, & encamped at a small branch on a Mountain; near a Round dep Sink hole which was full of water.  The party being all exceeding hungry we were obliged to kill a sucking Colt to subsist on.  One of our hunters went out hunting.  He chased a bear in a Mountain; but did not get a chance to kill it.  The Wolves howled very much in the night, & we saw some signs of deer, so that we expect that their is gme to be had a head of where we are encamped.--

From the sign at the trail head we walked 1/2 mile to the "Sinque Hole" and arrived at 11:35 AM. We experienced a few sprinkles of rain.

SinqueHole2.jpg (111712 bytes)

N. 46o 30' 136"
W. 115o 08' 449"
Elevation 6672 Feet.

June 27, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

from this place we had an extensive view of these stupendous mountains principally covered with snow like that on which we stood; we were entirely surrounded by those mountains from which to one unacquainted with them it would have seemed impossible ever to have escaped; in short without the assistance of our guides I doubt much whether we who had once passed them could find our way to Travellers rest in their present situation for the marked trees on which we had placed considerable reliance are much fewer and more difficult to find than we had apprehended. ... we encamped for the night having traveled 28 miles over these mountains without releiving the horses from their packs or their having any food. ... our meat being exhausted we issued a pint of bears oil to a mess which with their boiled roots made an agreeable dish.

June 27, 1806
John Ordway

a fair morning.  we took an eairly breakfast and  proceeded on verry fast over over the high banks of Snow   the most part of the day and bad mountains.    we came further to day than we went in 2 when we came over.   and Camped [On Spring Hill, or Spring Mountain] on the South Side of a mountain where our horses find a little grass.   the day warm and Snow melts fast.--

June 27, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had a cloudy morning and at 8 o'clock we renewed our march, proceeding over some of the steepest mountains I ever passed. The snow is so deep that we cannot wind along the sides of these steeps, but must slide straight down. The horses generally do not sink more than three inches in the snow; but sometimes they break through to their bellies. We kept on without halting to about 5 o'clock in the evening, when we stopped at the side of a hill where the snow was off, and where there was a little grass; and we here encamped for the night. The day was pleasant throughout; but it appeared to me somewhat extraordinary, to be travelling over snow six or eight feet deep in the latter end of June. The most of us, however, had saved our socks as we expected to find snow on these mountains.

After the 1/2 mile walk into the "Sinque Hole" some of us continued the hike up the ridge another 1/2 mile to the Indian Grave where we arrived at 12:05 PM.

IndianGrave1.jpg (128198 bytes)

The marker at this grave site states Albert Parsons Mallickan, age 14 years, was born in 1881 in Kamiah, ID. The elevation according to my GPS is lower at the Indian Grave than at the "Sinque Hole".  My experience suggests we increased our elevation.  An error at some level.

N. 46o 29' 846"
W. 115o 08' 771"
Elevation: 6310 Feet

During our continued trek to the "Smoking Place" we observed what I would call a geological wonder.  You can judge for yourself from the following pictures.

IndianGrave2.jpg (122132 bytes)

This boulder is easily 12-15 feet long and 5-7 feet in height at its longest and highest points.

IndianGrave3.jpg (109639 bytes)

After completing the third leg of our 1 1/2 mile trek we reached the "Smoking Place" at 12:45 PM.

SmokingPlace1.jpg (66636 bytes)

The picture above was taken by fellow traveler Doug Good.

SmokingPlace2.jpg (86074 bytes)

This picture was taken from the "Smoking Place" looking back in the direction of the Indian Grave and the "Sinque Hole".

SmokingPlace3.jpg (76903 bytes)

N. 46o 29' 239"
W. 115o 09' 176"
Elevation: 6576 Feet

Back with the Corp of Rediscovery we took a number of group pictures and proceeded on down the trail to another trail head.  The main party elected to rest at this location and have lunch.  With some instruction from Ray Curtis, Joe and I set out in advance to the next location - and to stay ahead of the dust.

We came to a fork in the road and suspecting we should stay on the ridge top we took that choice.  Unlike Lewis and Clark at the junction of the Missouri and the Marias we took the wrong fork.  However, it was worth the 3 mile round trip as we discovered Castle Rock Lookout.

N. 46o 26' 043"
W. 115o 13' 190"
Elevation: 6675 Feet

CastleRock1.jpg (76655 bytes)

I took 21 pictures from different locations around the walkway of this lookout.  They might make an exceptable panoramic picture if I get the time to work with them.

CastleRock2.jpg (81580 bytes)

Between taking the "wrong" fork and reaching Castle Rock Lookout we came upon this old seldom used road.  It may be an old road to the lookout or it may be the old Nez Perce Trail which had been utilized by travelers before the construction of mountain road 500 which approximates the Nez Perce Trail.

After getting back on the correct road we came upon a Chevrolet Silverado 6C 25144 which had driven off the road and was resting against a tree.  If the tree had not been there the vehicle would surely have rolled numerous times down the steep embankment.  Evidence indicated the driver of the vehicle had gotten out the drivers side window safely and the passenger side window was rolled up and unbroken.  We had seen this vehicle on two previous occasions being driven by an elderly lady with blond or light gray hair.  She was apparently in the company of two other vehicles as on the first occasion of seeing her we had stopped at 9 Mile Saddle when a gentleman in another vehicle came upon us and informed the group that two more vehicles were with him.   She was in the second vehicle.

N. 46o 26' 400"
W. 115o 12' 903"

Leaving this location we traveled on to Greensward Camp and arrived at 2:45 PM.

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This sign indicates the party camped near here on June 26, 1806.

June 26, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

the snow has subsided near four feet since the 17th inst. we now measured it accurately and found from a mark which we had made on a tree when we were last here on the 17th that it was then 10 feet 10 inches which appeared to be about the common debth though it is deeper still in some places. it is now generally about 7 feet.

June 26, 1806
William Clark

the Snow which was 10 feet 10 inches deep on the top of the mountain, had sunk to 7 feet tho' perfectly hard and firm. ... I was taken yesterday with a violent pain in my head which has tormented me ever since most violently.

June 26, 1806
John Ordway

we Set out as usal and proceed. on to the top of mountains covred with Snow where we had left our baggage, [The cache on Willow Ridge] and packed up and proceed. one   we find the Snow has Settled a little more than 2 feet Since we left this the other day.  proceeded on thro. Snow deep.  in the evening we Came to the Side of a mountain where the Snow is melted away and a little young grass &C. So we Camped. [Bald Mountain]   Soon after we Camped another Indn. Came up who is going over the mountn. with us.

June 26, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had a foggy morning; proceeded on early; and found the banks of snow much decreased: at noon we arrived at the place where we had left our baggage and stores. The snow here had sunk twenty inches. We took some dinner, but there was nothing for our horses to eat. We measured the depth of the snow here and found it ten feet ten inches. We proceeded over some very steep tops of the mountains and deep snow; but the snow was not so deep in the drafts between them; and fortunately we got in the evening to the side of the hill where the snow was gone; and there was very good grass for our horses. So we encamped there all night. Some heavy showers of rain had fallen in the afternoon.

We proceeded on to Dry Camp.

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N. 46o 26' 204"
W. 115o 16' 598"

According to the signage the Corp of Discovery camped at this point on September 18, 1805.

September 18, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

Cap Clark set out this morning to go a head with six hunters. [Including Reubin Field, George Drouillard and John Shields.] there being no game in these mountains we concluded it would be better for one of us to take the hunters and hurry on to the leavel country a head and there hunt and provide some provision <for> while the other remained with and brought on the party   the latter of these was my part; accoringly I directed the horses to be gotten up early being determined to force my march as much as the abilities of our horses would permit. the negligence of one of the party Willard [Alexander Hamilton Willard] who had a spare horse <in> not attending to him and bringing him up last evening was the cause of our detention this morning untill 1/2 after 8 A M when we set out.  I sent willard back to serch for his horse, and proceeded on with the party    at four in the evening he overtook us without the horse, we marched 18 miles this day and encamped on the side of a steep mountain; [Near Bald Mountain] we suffered for water this day passing one rivulet only; we wer fortunate in finding water in a steep raviene about 1/2 maile from our camp. this morning we finished the remainder of our last coult.    we dined & suped on a skant proportion of portable soupe, a few canesters of which, a little bears oil and about 20 lbs. of candles form our stock of provision, the only recources being our guns & packhorses. the first is but a poor dependance in our present situation where there is nothing upon earth exept ourselves and a few small pheasants, small grey Squirrels, and a blue bird of the vultur kind about the size of a turtle dove or jay bird. [The squirrel may be Richardson's red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hunsonicus richardsoni. See February 25 & 26, 1806. The blue bird may be the pinyon jay of August 1, 1805, but some sources give it as the scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens or Steller's jay, Cyanocitta stelleri. Each choice creates problems when compared with Lewis's entry of September 20, but the scrub jay seems the least likely possibility. The turtle dove used for comparison is the morning dove, Zenaida macroura.] our rout lay along the ridge of a high mountain course 20 W. 18 in. used the snow for cooking.--

September 18, 1805
William Clark

[WC: The want of provisions together with the dificuly of passing those emence mountains dampened the spirits of the party which induced us to resort to Some plan of reviving ther sperits. I deturmined to take a party of the hunters and proceed on in advance to Some leavel Country, where there was game kill some meat & Send it back, &c.]  a fair morning cold  I proceded on in advance with Six hunters [WC: and let it be understood that my object was] to try and find deer or Something to kill [WC: & Send back to the party]   we passed over a countrey Similar to the one of yesterday more falling timber passed Several runs & Springs passing to the right  from the top of a high part of the mountain at 20 miles I had a view of an emence Plain and leavel Countrey to the S W. & West at a great distance [Standing on Sherman Peak, Clark was viewing the open praires in Lewis and Idaho Counties, northwest of Grangeville, including Camas and Nez Perce prairies. Atlas maps 70, 71.] a high mountain in advance beyond the Plain, [Probably Cottonwood Butte, possibly the Blue Mountains in Oregon.] Saw <but little> [WC: no] Sign of deer and nothing else, much falling timber, made 32 miles and Encamped on a bold running Creek passing to the left which I call Hungery Creek [Clark camped on Hungery Creek, just above the entrance of Doubt Creek. Hungery Creek was for many years known as Obia Creek, but Clark's name has been restored. Only Clark's campsites, not those of the main party during the separation period, appear on the sketch maps. Atlas map 70.] as at that place we had nothilng to eate. I halted only one hour to day to let our horses feed on Grass <and rest> [WC: hill side] and rest

[Clark]

Course Distance 18th Septr. 1805 Monday

S. 85 W   32 miles nearly  I proceeded on with the hnters to a Creek running from the right which I call hungary Creek as we have nothing to eate  passed a run & Several Springs which pass to the right, Keep on a Dividg ridge & Crossed Several high and Steep Knobs  a great quantity of falling timber  at 20 miles I beheld a wide and extencive vallie in a West & S W direction about [blank] miles.   a high mountain beyond  Drewyer shot at a Deer  we did not get it.   Killed nothing in those emence mountains of stones falling timber & brush

September 18, 1805
Patrick Gass

This was a clear cold frosty morning. All our horses exept one were collected early: Six hunters [including Clark, Reuben Field, George Drouillard & John Shields] went on ahead; one man to look for the horse; and all the rest of us proceeded on our journey over the mountains, which are very high and rough. About 12 we passed a part where the snow was off, and no appearance that much had lately fallen. At 3 we came to snow again, and halted to take some soup, which we made with snow water, as no other could be found. Here the man, [Willard] who had been sent for the horse came up, but had not found him. Except on the sides of hills where it has fallen, the country is closely timbered with pitch and sprice pine, and what some call balsam-fir. We can see no prospect of getting off these desert mountains yet, except the appearance of a deep cove on each side of the ridge we are passing along. We remained here an hour and an half, and then proceeded on down a steep mountain, and encamped after travelling 18 miles. We had great difficulty in getting water, being obliged to go half a mile for it down a very steep precipice.

September 18, 1805
John Ordway

a clear pleasant morning. Capt. Clark and Six hunters [Including Reubin Field, George Drouillard & John Shields] Set out at Sunrise to go on a head expecting to kill Some game. one of our horses lost.  we Set out and proceeded on  the Mountains rough and rockey up and Steep places  Some logs and bushes &C.  about 3 oClock P.M. we halted on a ridge [Possibly Bald Mountain] to let our horses graze a little and melt a little Snow and made a little portable Soup.  the Mountains continues as fer as our eyes could extend. they extend much further than we expeted. we proceeded on untill dark before we found any water then Camped on the Side of a Mountain [About 3 miles west of Bald Mountain]  had come 14 miles this day.  took our horses down a Steep gulley to a run to water them.  we Supped on a little protable Soup and Slept on this Sidling Mountain.--

September 18, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a clear pleasant morning  Capt. Clark and Six hunters [Including Reubin Field, George Drouillard & John Shields] Set out at Sunrise to go on a head to try to kill Some game if possable.  we got up all our horses except one which we expect is lost.   one man [Willard] Sent back Some distnace to hunt him.  we Set out about 7 oClock and proceeded on a ridge of mountains Some distance, then went up and down rough rockey mountains as usal.  but verry little water.  about 3 oClock P. m. we halted on a ridge of the mountn. to let our horses feed a little, and melt a little Snow as we found no water to make a little Port. Soup as we have nothing else to eat.   the day moderate the Snow melts a little.  the mountains appear a head as fer as we can See. they continue much further than we expected.   we proceeded on down a verry Steep part of the mount. then up on the side of another before we found any water, and Campd. [About three miles west of Bald Mountain] at dark on the Side of the motn. where we found a Spring by going down a Steep hill where it was dangerous to take our horses to water. we Suped on a little portable Soup and lay down on this Sideling mountn.  Came 14 miles day

September 18, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

This morning clear pleasant weather, Captain Clark & Six of our best hunters, set out at sunrise to go on a head; to try & kill some Game if possible, We got up all our horses excepting one, which we expect we have lost, One of the party was sent back to hunt him.  We then set out & proceeded on our Journey, about 7 oClock A.M. we passed on a ridge of mountains, some distnace, then ascended & descended rough rockey Mountains as usual & found but very little Water.  About 3 o'Clock P.M. we halted on a ridge of the Mountains to let our horses feed, and to melt some Snow to make a little portable Soup, having nothing else to eat.  The weather moderated, & the snow melted a little.  The Mountains appear a head of us as far as we can see & continue much further than we expected.--

We proceeded on down a very steep part of the Mountain; then ascended the side of another mountain; where we found water.  We encamped on the side of this mountain at dark, & found a spring, which was down a steep hill, which was so dangerous to descend, that we did not take our horses to it for water.  We supped on a little portable Soup, & lay down on a Sideling mountain.  We came about 14 Miles this day.--

Leaving the marker at Dry Camp we proceeded on to Sherman Peak.  This is believed to be the location where members of the Corp of Discovery first viewed the open plains of Camas Prairie.

N. 46o 24' 8"
W. 115o 19' 46"
Elevation: 6664 Feet

Next stop along the Lewis and Clark Route was Gass Creek.

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This creek was not named by any member of the Corp of Discovery. The Hungery Creek drainage represents a 12 mile portion lying to the south of this sign which remains much as it did at the time of Lewis and Clark.   No marked trail exists, and only with strennuous efforts can one follow where the explorers traveled through the Hungery Creek Drainage.  Lack of game on their westward trek forced them to kill and eat a stray horse they found while travelling below.  It should have given them hope they were near an Indian Village.

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On June 15, 1806 the party left Weippe Prairie in a hard rain.  After completing about 11 miles they overtook two members of the party who having gone ahead to hunt, had killed a deer, their third for the day.

June 15, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

it rained very hard in the morning ... Came 22 Miles today.

June 15, 1806
John Ordway

we arose at day light and went out in this flat for our horses. Soon Set in to raining hard.  we got up all our horses  took breakfast & packed up and Set out about 8 oClock and proceeded on.  found the road verry Slipperry & bad  took the mountains and the road So bad Several of our horses fell  about noon we had Thunder and hard Showers of rain.  we crossed Several runs on which is considerable of white ceeder timber balsom fer & diffrent kinds of pine.  we have now 66 good horses to take us and our baggage across the mountains.  came to the Small prarie where R. Fields and willard had been hunting found 2 deer hanging up which they had killd.   we took the meat and proceed. on down the bad hill on Collinses Creek where we found R. Fields and willard  they had killed another Deer and were Camped on the bank of the Creek where we dined and proceeded on. found the road very bad falling timber &C.  at dark we Camped [On Eldorado Creek, near the mouth of Lunch Creek] at a Small glade where was pleanty of feed for our horses

June 15, 1806
Patrick Gass

This was a cloudy wet morning with some thunder. We left Com-mas flat to attempt to cross the mountains; and had sixty-six horses, all very good. We ascended a high mount with a good deal of difficulty, as the path was very slippery, but got over safe to a small prairie, where the two men, who had gone on ahead had killed two deer and hung them up. We took the meat, proceeded down the hill and found the hunters who had killed another deer. We halted at a creek and took dinner; then proceeded over a very difficult road on account of the fallen timber. We had rain at intervals during the forenoon, but the afternoon was clear. We encamped inn a small glade where there was plenty of grass for the horses.

From this location we continued our caravan down mountain road 500 to "Pheasant Camp" or the location where we set up camp for the evening - Lolo Camp.  We arrived shortly before dark, dined, shared lesson plans and capped the evening off with a half bottle of Bushmill.

Wednesday August 6, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Arose at 5:55, packed our gear, breakfasted and proceeded on at 7:35 AM.  We arrived at Weippe at 8:15 AM.

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Clark had gone ahead of the main party in search of food and Nez Perce.  On September 20, 1805 he located three young Indian Nez Perce near this location.  Read Clarks entry for that date which follows.

September 20, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

This morning my attention was called to a species of bird [The Varied Thrush, Ixoreus naevius, already known to science but not to Lewis. He gave a longer description on January 31, 1806.] which I had never seen before. It was reather larger than a robbin, tho' much it's form and action.  the colours were a blueish brown on the back the wings and tale black, as wass a stripe above the croop 3/4 of an inch wide in front of the neck, and two others of the same colour passed from it's eyes back along the sides of the head.  the top of the head, neck brest and belley and butts of the wing were of a fine yellowish brick <yellow> reed.  it was feeding on the buries of a species of shoemake or ash [Pacific or Sitka, Mountain Ash, Sorbus stichensis, which has red-scarlet berries attractive to birds at this time of year. It also occurs on the North Fork Salmon  River in the location of the party's route of September 2, as Lewis indicates. A specimen of this new discovery was collected on September 4.] which grows common in country & which I first observed on 2d of this month.  I have also observed two birds of a blue colour both of which I believe to be of the haulk or vulter kind.  the one [Steller's Jay and new to science. See Lewis's full description at December 18, 1805.] of a blue shinning colour with a very high tuft of feathers on the head a long tale, it feeds on flesh the beak and feet black.   it's not is cha-ah, cha-ah.  it is about the size of a pigeon; and in shape and action resembles the jay bird.--  another bird [Possibly the Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis. See Lewis's entry of December 18, 1805.] of very similar genus, the note resembling the mewing of the cat, with a white head and light blue colour is also common, as are a black species of woodpecker about the size of the lark woodpecker [The Black Woodpecker is Lewis's Woodpecker while the Lark Woodpecker is the Northern, or Common, Flicker, Colaptes auratus.]   Three species of Pheasants, [All three species were then unknown to science. The first, the Blue Grouse, Lewis had noted on August 1, 1805. The second is the Spruce Grouse, first noted on September 13, 1805. The third is the Oregon Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus sabini, now combined with B. umbellus, which Lewis again calls a pheasant in comparison. See February 5 and March 3, 1806.] a large black species with some white feathers irregularly scattered on the brest neck and belley  a smaller kind of a dark uniform colour with a red stripe above the eye, and a brown and yellow species that a good deel resembles the phesant common to the Atlantic States.  we were detained this morning untill ten oclock in consequence of not being enabled to <get up> collect our horses.  we had proceeded about 2 miles when we found the greater part of a horse which Capt Clark had met with and killed for us. [The spot on Hungery Creek, just beyond Lewis's camp of September 19, 1805.]  he informed me by note that he should proceed as fast as possible to the leavel country which lay to the S.W. of us, which we discovered from the hights of the mountains on the 19th there he intended to hunt untill our arrival.  at one oclock we halted [Fish Creek or one of its branches.] and made a hearty meal on our horse beef much to the comfort of our hungry stomachs.  here I larnt that one of the Packhorses with his load was missing and immediately dispatched Baptiest Lapage [Baptiste LaPage] who had charge of him, to surch for him.  he returned at 3 OC. without the horse. The load of the horse was of considerable value consisting of merchandize and all my stock of winter cloathing. I therefore dispatched two of my best woodsmen in surch of him, and proceeed with the party. Our rout lay through a thick forrest of large pine the general course being S. 25 W. and distance about 15 miles.  our road was much obstructed by fallen timber particularly in the evening  we encamped on a ridge [Between Dollar and Sixbit Creeks. Atlas map 70.] where ther was but little grass for our horses, and at a distance from water.  however we obtaned s much as served our culinary purposes and suped on our beef.  the soil as you leave the hights of the mountains becomes gradually more fertile.  the land through which we passed this evening is of an excellent quality tho very broken, it is a dark grey soil.  a grey free stone appearing in large masses above the earth in many places. saw the hucklebury, honeysuckle, and alder common to the Atlantic states, also a kind of honeysuckle which bears a white bury and rises about 4 feet high not common but to the western side of the rockey mountains.  a growth which resembles the choke cherry bears a black bury with a single stone of a sweetish taste, it rises to the hight of 8 or 10 feet and grows in thick clumps.  the Arborvita is also common and grows to an immence size, being from 2 to 6 feet in diameter. [Huckleberry is possibly Mountain Huckleberry, Vacinium membranaceum, then new to science. Honeysuckle is Western Trumpet Honeysuckle. Alder is probably Sitka, or Wavyleaf Alder, Alnus sinuata, if so, then new to science. The Alder used for comparison is A. serrulata of the eastern United States. The Honeysuckle which bears a white berry is the Common Snowberry. The plant which resembles the Choke Cherry is the Choke Cherry itself. Arborvita is Western Redcedar.]

September 20, 1805
William Clark

I Set out early and proceeded on through a Countrey as ruged as usial  passedd over a low mountain into the forks of a large Creek which I kept down 2 miles [Clark reached the forks of Lolo and Eldorado creeks, crossed the former and went down it. Lolo Creek is "Collins Creek" on Atlas map 71, after John Collins of the party.] and assended a Steep mountain leaveing the Creek to our left hand  passed the head of Several dreans on a divideing ridge, and at 12 miles decended the mountain to a leavel pine Countrey  proceeded on through a butifull Countrey for three miles to a Small Plain in which I found maney Indian lodges, [Clark went over Brown's Ridge and down Miles Creek to Weippe Prairie. Weippe Prairie was one of the major camas collecting grounds in the interior Pacific Northwest. Camas was an essential part of the native diet, particularly as a winter store. Not only Nez Perce, but people from as far away as the Pacific Coast came to Weippe to dig camas roots and partiipate in social activities. Most of the lodges Clark observed were probably late summer or early fall camps. Lodges of poles and bark mats were erected at the camas meadows and in the fall the people retired into the canyons to spend the winter. When people left in the fall, the poles were frequently cached in the area, while the mats were taken into the canyons for use there.] at the distance of 1 mile from the lodges I met 3 [WC: Indian] boys, when they saw me [they] ran and hid themselves, [WC: in the grass I dismounted gave my gun &c horse to one of the men,] searched [WC: in the grass and] found [WC: 2 of the boys] gave them Small pieces of ribin & Sent them forward to the village  [WC: Soon after] a man Came out to meet me with great Caution & Conducted <me> us to a large Spacious Lodge which he told me (by Signs) was the Lodge of his great Chief who had Set out 3 days previous with all the Warriers of the nation to war on a South West derection & would return in 15 or 18 days.  the fiew men that were left in the Village aged, great numbers of women geathered around me with much apparent Signs of fear, and apr. pleased they <those people> gave us a Small piece of Buffalow meat, Some dried Salmon beries & roots in different States, Some round and much like an onion which they call <Pas she co> quamash the Bread or Cake is called Pas-she-co Sweet, of this they make bread & Supe [Camas, a member of the lily family and then new to science. See Lewis's description June 11, 1806. The term pasigoo (Clark's "Pas-she-co") is the Shoshone designation for the camas and its edible bulb, historically a staple food. The word literally means "water sego," in reference to the sego lily, common food in the region. Lewis and Clark wrote this word together with "quamash," that is, qe mes, the Nez Perce term for camas, from which the Latin and English designation derive.] they also gave us the bread made of this root all of which we eate hartily, I gave them a fiew Small articles as preasents, and proceeded on with a Chief to his Village 2 miles in the Same Plain, where we were treated kindly in their way and continued with them all night [The first village Clark came to was south of present Weippe. The second, where they spent the night, was about a mile southwest of Weippe; both were on a branch of Jim Ford Creek. The villages were probably seasonal camps.]  Those two Villages consist of about 30 double lodges, but fiew men a number of women & children; They call themselves Cho pun-nish or Pierced Noses, [These people are now known as the Nez Perces, from the French for "pierced noses," which corresponds to their sign language designation. The Nez Perce name for themselves is nimi'-pu, "the people" or cu'-p'nit or cu'p'nitpelu, the etymology of the latter term is not known, but suggests pierced noses. The question of whether they ever did pierce their noses is still a subject of debate. Nevertheless, Lewis and Clark saw them with ornaments in their noses and the best authorities acknowledge the practice. See Clark's entry of May 7, 1806, and Lewis's of May 13, 1806. They are noted for breeding the spotted Appaloosa horse, but again it is a disputed topic whether they developed the breed. Like many of the mountain tribes of the Northwest, after acquiring horses they made periodic trips across the Rockies to hunt buffalo and assumed many elements of plains culture. American missionaries converted a large protion of the tribe to Christianity in the 1830s and 1840s. Their long history of friendly relations with the whites, beginning with Lewis and Clark, came to an end with the war of 1877, in which a part of the tribe conducted their famous retreat over the Lolo Trail and into Montana, where they were finally captured.] their dialect appears verry different from the <flat heads> Tushapaws altho origineally the Same people [How Clark reached this conclusion is not apparent. The Nez Perces belong to the Shahaptian (Sahaptin) language family, the Flatheads (Salish) to the Salishan family.] They are darker than the <Flat heads> Tushapaws <I have seen>  Their dress Similar, with more beads white & blue principally, brass & Coper in different forms, Shells and ware their haire in the Same way.  they are large Portley men Small women & handsom fetued  Emence quantity of the quawmash or Pas-shi-co root gathered & in piles about the plains, the roots grow much an onion in marshey places the seed are in triangular Shell on the Stalk.  they Sweat them in the following manner i.e. dig a large hole 3 feet deep Cover the bottom with Split wood on the top of which they lay Small Stones of about 3 or 4 Inches thick, a Second layer of Splited wood & Set the whole on fire which heats the Stones, after the fire is extinguished they lay grass & mud mixed on the Stones, on that dry grass which Supports the Pash-Shi-co root a thin Coat of the Same grass is laid on the top, a Small fire is kept when necessary in the Center of the kile &c.

I find myself verry unwell all the evening from eateing the fish & roots too freely. Sent out the hunters  they killed nothing  Saw Some Signs of deer.

[Clark]

Course Dist. Friday 20th Septr 1805

Nearly S W   12 miles over a mountain to a low ridgey Countrey covered with large pine, passed into the forks of a large Creek which we kept down about 2 miles & left it to the left hand and crossed the heads of Som Dreans of the Creek & on a ruged Deviding ridge, road as bad as usial  no game of Sign to day
West   3  miles to an Indian Camp in a leavel rich open Plain  I met 3 boys who I gave a pice of ribin to each & Sent them to the <Ca> Villages, I Soon after met a man whome I gave a handkerchief and he escorted me to the grand Chiefs Lodge, who was with the most of the nation gorn to war those people treated us well  gave us to eate roots dried roots made in bread, roots boiled, one Sammon, Berries of red haws some dried, my arrival raised great Confusion, all running to See us, after a Delay of an hour I deturmined to go lower & turn out & hunt, a principal man informed me his Camp was on my way and there was fish  I concluded to go to his village, and Set out accompd. by about 100  men womin & boys 2 mile across the Plains, & halted   tuned. out 4 men to hunt, he have us a Sammon to eate, I found that his Situation was not on the river as I expected & that this Sammon was dried, & but fiew--   This course is N. 70o W. 2 miles across a rich leavel Plain in which grt quantities of roots have been geathered and in heaps.  those roots are like onions, Sweet when Dried, and tolerably good in bread, I eate much & am Sick in the evening.   those people have an emence quantities of Roots which is their Principal food. The hunters discovered Som Signs but killed nothing
  17

September 20, 1805
Patrick Gass

It was late before our horses were collected, but the day was fine; and at 9 o'clock we continued our march. Having proceeded about a mile, we came to a small glade, where our hunters had found a horse, and had killed, dressed and hung him up. Capt. Clarke, who had gone forward with the hunters, left a note informing us that he and they intended to go on to the valley or level country ahead, as there was no chance of killing any game in these desert moutains. We loaded the meat and proceeded along the mountains. At noon we stopped and dined, on our horse flesh: here we discovered that a horse, having Capt. Lewis's clothes and baggage on him, had got into the bushes while we were loading the meat, and was left behind. One of the men [Baptiste LePage] therefore was sent back, but returned without finding him. Two other men with a horse were then sent back, and we continued our march along a ridge, where there are rocks, that appear to be well calculated for making millstones; and some beautiful tall cedars among the spruce pine. Night came on before we got off this ridge, and we had much difficulty in finding water. The soil on the western side of the mountains appears much better than on the east; and not so rocky. We can see the valley ahead, but a great way off.

September 20, 1805
John Ordway

a cold frosty morning   we found a handful or 2 of Indian peas [Possibly hog peanut, Amphicarpa bracteata, which the Corp. probably gathered on the Missouri River] and a little bears oil which we brought with us   we finished the last morcil of it and proceeded on half Starved and very weak. our horses feet gitting Sore.  came a Short distance and found a line which Capt Clark had left with the meat of a horse which they found in the woods and killed for our use  as they had killed nothing but 1 or 2 phasants after they left us.  we took the meat and proceeded on a Short distance further  one horse Strayed from us yesterday with a pair of port Mantaus with Some Marchandize and Capt. Lewises winter cloths &C--  2 men went back to hunt for him.  we proceeded on along a ridge where we had a bad road which was filled with logs.  our horses got Stung by the wasps. [Probably western yellow jacket, Vespula pensylvanica]  we came on untill after dark before we found any water.  came 14 miles this day.-- [Between Dollar and Sixbit creeks]

September 20, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a cold frosty morning.  we eat a fiew peas & a little greece which was the verry last kind of eatables of any kind we had except a little portable Soup.  we got up our horses except one which detained us untill about 8 oClock before we found him.   we then load up our horses and Set out.  proceeded on up the creek a Short distance and found a line which Capt. Clark had left with the meat of a horse which they found and killed as they had killed nothing after they left us only three prairie hens or Phesants.  we took the horse meat and put it on our horses and proceeded on a Short distance further.  then left the creek and went oer a mountain S. W.  then followed down a ridge, came to a Spring run and halted and dined Sumptiously on our horse meat.  One horse Strayed from us which had on him a pear of portmantaus which hae in it Some marchandize and Capt. Lewis winter cloaths &c.  2 men Sent back to the creek to hunt him.  we proceeded on up and down Several hills and followed a ridge where the timber was fell So thick across the trail that we cold hardly git along.   our horses got Stung by the yallow wasps.[Probably western yellow jacket, Vespula pensylvanica]  we did not find any water to Camp untill after dark, and then Camped on a ridge.  [Between Dollar and Sixbit creeks]   found a little water in a deep gulley a Short distance from us.  the different kinds of pine continues as usal.  considerable of Strait handsome timber on these ridges, which resembles white ceeder but is called Arbervity. [Arborvitae, another name for western redcedar]  no other kind except the pine & bolsom fer, all of which grows verry tall and Stait.  the mountains not So high as back but verry broken. Came about 14 miles this day. the plains appear Some distance off yet. it is twice as far as we expected where we first discovred it from a high mountain.--

September 20, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

This morning was cold, with frost, we did not set out, 'till after we had eat breakfast, which consisted of a few pease & bears Oil, which was the last kind of eatables, that we had with us (excpting a little Portable Soup)  we loaded all our horses, but one which had strayed off, which detain'd us untill 8 o'Clock at which time we proceeded on our Journey.--  we went up the Creek we had been at last evening a short distance, & found a line from Captain Clark, with the flesh of a horse which the party with him had found & killed.  they informed us, that he nor his party had not killed any kind of game since they left us, excepting 3 Pheasants, We put the horse meat on our Horses, and proceeded a short distance futher up the Creek, we then left the Creek, and went over a Mountain a South west course, & went down a ridge, and came to a Spring where we halted, & dined sumptuously on our horse meat.--  One of our horses during the time that we were at dinner, strayed away from us; he was loaded with two portmanteaus, which had in them some Merchandise & Captain Lewis's winter Cloathes.--  Captain Lewis sent 2 of the Men back to the Creek to look after him, and we continued on our Journey, We ascended & descended several hills, and passed along a ridge of mountains, where the timber had fell so thick across the trail, that it was with great difficulty that we got our horses along, & the Yellow wasps was very troublesome to them, there being a great abundance of them at that place.  We did not find any Water to encamp at, 'till after it was dark, and it lay in a gully, a short distance from the Ridge of mountains that we encamped at.  We found growing on these Ridges, different kinds of Pine timber, and some tall White Cedar Trees.  The Mountains which we crossed this day, are not so high as those Mountains, we crossed some distance back; but are very broken.--  We came about 14 Miles this day & the plalins appear to lay some considerable distance from us still, & We expect it is double the distanc e that we supposed it to be, when we first saw them from the high Mountain.--

We of the Corp of Rediscovery left Weippe Prairie and travelled down Greer Grade via Jim Ford Creek to the Clearwater below.  We continued on to Canoe Camp where we ended this leg of the journey.  As I had been a part of an earlier journey with another class in June of 1998, and had received a "Friendship Medal" from the "Captains" of that experience, I gave each member one as a remembrance of this occasion.

See You On The Mountain.

jfromm@3rd1000.com

The Third Millennium


The punctuation, spelling, syntax, incorrect words and otherwise poor use of words is as they were written in my notebook.