Lewis & Clark: Encounters with Indians

with Captain Ray Curtis, M.I.S.

notes by James Richard Fromm, member of the Corp

Sunday July 6, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Finished my shift on bicycle patrol around 4:00 PM.  Cleaned up and finished packing for the great adventure to discover the trail of the Corp of Discovery and their encounters with Indians.  Called Joe Partington at 6:15 to determine his thoughts as to when to begin the road trip to our "Captains" place of residence.  We selected to leave at 7:00 PM.  It's approximately 2.5 hours driving time to Missoula, MT, plus an hour time change.  We proceeded on.

With time change, travel and a gasoline refill we arrived in the community of Milltown or Bonner (Identity Crisis?) at approximately 11:00 PM.  Depending on which end of the town one enters the name designation is different.  Had a minor delay in locating the Captains abode.  Bedded down for a 5:00 AM departure for Helena, MT.

Monday July 7, 2003
J. R. Fromm

At 5:20 AM we contacted the Captain, Ray Curtis, who was up and brewing coffee.  We did the introductions, had coffee, and we proceeded on.  Having the leader of our Corp of Rediscovery traveling in our van we were fortunate to be able to have an extended discussion relating to the travels of Lewis & Clark.  Arrived in Helena at 7:30 AM.  Went to the building which  houses the Historical Museum and the Library.   The Library being closed, we toured the Museum visiting the history of early Montana, Lewis & Clark and works of Charles M. Russell.  At 8:00 AM we met with the other members of the Corp of Rediscovery and organized for a tour of the Capitol   learning much history and viewing paintings of events we were soon to rediscover on our journey.

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At 12:00 noon we proceeded on to the "Gates of the Mountains".   Arrived at 12:45 PM, visited with Tim Crawford operator of Gates of the Mountain Marina, and reflected on the adventure to Mann Gulch.  At that location Tim, Joe Partington and myself spent the entire day of June 17, 2003 learning of the events of August 4-5, 1949 when 13 smoke jumpers lost their lives.  Presented him with a photo album of that trip.

Gates of the Mountain Marina
N. 46o 49' 903"
W.  111o 57' 035"
Elevation: 3750 feet

Having boarded the Sacajawea 2 we proceeded on for a two hour journey. While we entered the Gates of the Mountains from the south the story presented here will begin at our turnaround point in order to coincide with the Corp of Discoveries first viewing of the area.

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As Lewis approached the Gates of the Mountains there was the appearance of a solid wall with no means to pass.  As he moved closer there was the sensation of the mountain opening to allow them passage. Clark does not pass this way neither on the western approach nor on the return journey in 1806.  Clark is following an old Indian trail to the west of the Missouri River, attempting to locate a band of Indians for the want of horses.

July 19, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

...whever we get a view of the lofty summits of the mountains the snow presents itself, altho' we are almost suffocated in this confined vally with heat. ... this evening we entered much the most remarkable clifts that we have yet seen. these clifts rise from the waters edge on either side perpendicularly to the hight of 1200 feet. every object here wears a dark and gloomy aspect. the towing and projecting rocks in many places seem ready to tumble on us. the river appears to have forced it's way through this immence body of solid rock for the distance of 5 3/4 Miles and where it makes it's exit below has thown on either side vast collumns of rocks mountains high. ... it is deep from side to side nor is ther in the 1st 3 miles of this distance a spot except one of a few yards in extent on which a man could rest the soal of his foot. ...from the singular appearance of this place I called it the gates of the rocky mounatains.

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The canyon to the left is Mann Gulch and has been referred to previously.

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Mann Gulch
N. 46o 52' 689"
W. 111o 54' 826"
Elevation: 3574 feet

From this location at Mann Gulch to Meriwether Picnic Area is approximately 1224 yards.

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As Lewis passed Mann Gulch and into the Gates of the Mountains this rock outcropping loomed over the east bank of the Missouri River.

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"Native American Rock Art"
N. 46o 52' 533"
W. 111o 54' 628"

It was pointed out by our tour guide that there are 680 identified "Native American Rock Art" locations in the State of Montana and 150 of those are in the Great Falls-Helena area.  This is one such site. There is a red spot, not very visible in this photo, which is believed to be made of chokecherry juice and animal fat.  Researchers believe it to be between 1400 A.D. to the present.

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Meriwether Picnic Area
N. 46o 52' 178"
W. 111o 54' 628"

From Meriwether Picnic Area it is 283 yards straight up to the top of a rock ledge located at the north side of the entrance to the canyon.  The width of the river at this point is 185 yards east to west. The peak of the rock ledge on the west side of the Missouri River and across from Meriwether Picnic area is 489 yards.

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Coulter Canyon
N. 46o 51' 568"
W. 111o 54' 516"

Information received on this tour indicates that Coulter Canyon is named after John Colter of the Lewis & Clark Corp of Discovery. As with a number of other significant sites along the trail names and facts have been reported erroneously. There is no mention, by name, of the locations currently known as Meriwether Picnic Area, Coulter Canyon nor Fields Gulch.  These are apparently names given by those passing this way subsequent to the Corp of Discovery.

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Large Arch
N. 46o 51' 800"
W. 111o 54' 456"

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Looking back at Coulter Canyon and across from the large arch above the east bank of the Missouri River.

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The arch previously mentioned is located slightly left of center in this picture.

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This arch is located on the west side of the Missouri River upstream from that located on the east.

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Continuing the journey north and approaching the southern end of the Gates of the Mountains you see this awesome site of vertical slabs of rock some appearing to be 50 or 60 feet in height.

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This is the point were Lewis came out of the Gates of the Mountains.

South End Of "Gates Of The Mountains"
N. 46o 49' 808"
W. 111o 56' 044"

We disembarked the Sacajawea 2 at 3:15 PM and proceeded on to the Three Forks of the Missouri arriving at approximately 6:00 PM.

July 20, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

Set out early this morning as usual, currant strong, we therefore employ the toe rope when ever the banks permit the use of it; the water is reather deep for the seting pole in most places.  at 6 A. M. the hills retreated from the river and the valley became wider than we have seen it since we entered the mountains. ...through the valley which we entered early in the morning a large creek flows from the mountains and discharges it self into the river behind an island on Stard. side about 15 yds wide   this we called Pott's Creek after John Potts one of our party.  about 10 A. M. we saw the smoke arrose as if the country had been set on fire up the valley of this creek about 7 Mi. distant ... they had unperceived by us discovered Capt. Clark's party or mine, and had set the plain on fire to allarm the more distant natives ...

I saw a black woodpecker today about the size of the lark woodpecker as black as a crow. I indevoured to get a shoot at it but could not. it is a distinct species of woodpecker; it has a long tail and flys a good deel like a jay bird. (Afterward named "Lewis's woodpecker,")

Clark and his party will arrive on the river this day.

July 20, 1805
William Clark

The Misquetors verry troublesom  my man York nearly tired out, the bottoms of my feet blistered. I observe a Smoke rise to our right up the Valley of the last Creek about 12 miles distant, The Cause of this Smoke I can't account for certainly tho' think it probable that the Indians have heard the Shooting of the Partey below and Set the Praries or Valey on fire to allarm their Camps; Supposeing our party to be a war party comeing against them, I left Signs to Shew the Indians if they should come on our trail that we were not their enemeys. Camped on the river, the feet of the men with me So Stuck with Prickley pear & cut with the Stones that they were Scerseley able to march at a Slow gate this after noon

July 21, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

Set out early this morning and passed a bad rappid  where the river enters the mountain about 1 m. from our camp of last evening the Clifts high and covered with fragments of broken rocks.  the current strong; we employed the toe rope principally, and also the pole as the river is not now so deep but reather wider and much more rapid.   our progress was therefore slow and laborious. ...this valley is bounded by two nearly parallel ranges of high mountains which have their summits partially covered with snow. ...the river immediately on entering this valley assumes a different aspect and character, it spreads to a mile and upwards in width crouded with Islands, some of them large, is shallow enough for the use of the seting pole in almost every part and still mmore rappid then before; it's bottom is smooth stones and some large rocks as it has been since we have entered the mountains.

this morning Capt. Clark having determined to hunt and wait my arrival somewhere about his present station was fearfull that some indians might still be on the river above him sufficiently near to hear the report of his guns and therefore proceeed up the river about three miles and finding any indians nor discovering any fresh appearance of them returned about four miles below and fixed his camp near the river; ...the musquetoes were equally as troublesome to them as to ourselves this evening ... the men are all fortunately supplyed with musquetoe biers otherwise it would be impossible for them to exist under the fatiegues which they daily encounter without their natural rest which they could not obtain for those tormenting insects if divested of their biers.

William Clark arrives at the Three Forks of the Missouri on the 25th of July.   Meriwether Lewis arrives two days later on the 27th. of July, 1805. 

Three Forks Of The Missouri River
N. 45o 56' 400"
W. 111o 29' 440"

July 27, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

beleiving this to be an essential point in the geography of this western part of the Continent I determined to remain at all events untill I obtained the necessary data for fixing it's latitude Longitude &c. ... to call either of these streams the Missouri would be giving it a preference wich it's size dose not warrant as it is not larger then the other.

at 3 P.M. Capt Clark arrived very sick with a high fever on him and much fatiegued and exhausted. he informed me that he was very sick all last night had a high fever and frequent chills & constant aking pains in all his mustles. ... Capt. C. thought himself somewhat bilious and had not had a passage for several days; I prevailed on him to take a doze of Rushes pills, which I have always found sovereign in such cases and to bath his feet in warm water and rest himself.

we begin to feel considerable anxiety with rispect to the Snake Indians. if we do not find them or some other nation who have horses I fear the successfull issue of our voyage will be very doubtfull or at all events much more difficult in it's accomplishment. we are now several hundred miles within the bosom of this wild and mountanous country, where game may rationally be expected shortly to become scarce and subsistence precarious without any information with rispect to the country not knowing how far these mountains continue, or wher to direct our course to pass them to advantage or intersept a navigable branch of the Columbia, or even were we on such an one the probability is that we should not find any timber within these mountains large enough for canoes if we judge from the portion of them through which we have passed. however I still hope for the best, and intend taking a tramp myself in a few days to find these yellow gentlemen if possible. my two principal consolations are that from our present position it is impossible that the S.W. fork can head with the waters of any other river but the Columbia, and that if any Indians can subsist in the form of a nation in these mountains with the means they have of acquiring food we can also subsist.

July 27, 1805
William Clark

I continue to be verry unwell fever verry high, take 5 rushes pills & bathe my feet & legs in hot water

July 27, 1805
Patrick Gass

There is a beautiful valley at these forks; and a good deal of timber on the branches, chiefly cotton-wood. Also currants, goose and service berries, and choak-cherries on the banks. The deer are plenty too; some of the men went out and killed several to-day. Capt. Clarke was very unwell and had been so all last night. In the evening the weather became clear and we had a fine night.

July 27, 1805
John Ordway

about 9 oClock we arived at the three forks of the Missourie, which is in open view of the high Mountains covered in some places with Snow. ... Capt Clark verry unwell. ... we expected to have found the Snake nation of Indians at this place, but as we expect they are further up the River, or perhaps they are gone over the mountains to the Columbian River on the other side to fish &. C. this is the place where our Intrepters wife was taken prisoner by the Grossvauntars, about 4 years ago, &. C.

July 27, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

about 9 oClock we Came or arived at the 3 forks of the Missourie which is in a valley in open view of the high Mountains which has white Spots on it which has the appearence of Snow. ... the plain on N. Side of the forks has lately been burned over by the natives. ... Camped on the point which is a Smoth plain. a large Camp of Indians has been encamped here Sometime ago. our Intrepters wife was taken prisoner at this place 3 or 4 years ago by the Gross vauntous Indians. ... this is a verry pleasant handsome place, fine bottoms of timber &c. we expected to have found the Snake nation of Indians about this place, but as they are gone we expect they are gone over the mountains to the River called the Columbian River, to fish &c. but perhaps we may find Some this Side of the mountains yet. ... at this Camp we unloaded all the canoes & conclude to rest & refresh ourselves a day or too &c. Capt. Clark taken Sick.

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The picture above, taken from a prominence known as Fort Rock,  is known as Lewis' Rock, as Lewis is reported to have spent the greater part of a day observing and describing the surrounding area.  Below is the Gallatin River. The rivers making up the Missouri at this location are the Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin.

Fort Rock
N. 45o 56' 015"
W. 111o 29' 603"
Elevation: 4,080 feet

July 28, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

Both Capt. C. and myself corrisponded in opinon with rispect to the impropriety of calling either of these streams the Missouri and accoardingly agreed to name them after the President of the United States and the Secretaries of the Treasury and state having previously named one river in honour of the Secretaries of War and Navy.  In pursuance of this resolution we called the S.W. fork, that which we meant to ascend, Jefferson's River in honor of Thomas Jefferson. the Middle fork we called Madison's River in honor of James Madison, and the S.E. Fork we called Gallitin's River in honor of Albert Gallitin. ... the beds of all these streams are formed of smooth pebble and gravel, and their waters perfectly transparent; in short they are three noble streams.

this affords one of the best winter pastures on earth for horses or cows, and of course will be much in favour of an establishment should it ever be thought necessary to fix one at this place.

Our present camp is precisely on the spot that the Snake Indians were encamped at the time the Minnetares of the Knife R. first came in sight of them five years since. from hence they retreated about three miles up Jeffersons river and concealed themselves in the woods, the Minnetares pursued, attacked them, killed 4 men 4 women a number of boys, and mad prisoners of all the females and four boys, Sah-cah-gar-we-ah or Indian woman was one of the female prisoners taken at that time; tho' I cannot discover that she shews any immotion of sorrow in recollecting this event, or of joy in being again restored to her native country ; if she has enough to eat and a few trinkets to wear I beleive she would be perfectly content anywhere.

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Madison Buffalo Jump
N. 45o 47' 593"
W. 111o 28' 102"

According to those who have studied this site and utilized radiocarbon dating this jump was used at least 2000 years ago up through 200 years ago.

Tuesday July 8, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Arose at 7:15 AM and proceeded on.  First stop was Wheat Montana for a special cinnamon roll.  Proceeded on to the community of Whitehall and viewed fine works of art which the community has taken great pride in having painted on the sides of store fronts relating to the achievements of the expedition.  Proceeded on to Twin Bridges and stopped at a park at the designated time of 1:30 PM to discuss the Three Forks of the Jefferson.  The river at this location flows at a ground speed of 1.5 miles per hour.  At this location besides the main river Jefferson flows two others: the Bighole or Wisdom and the Ruby or Philanthrophy.

Twin Bridges Park
N. 45o 32' 710"
W. 112o 20' 080"

August 06, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

we beleive that the N.W. or rapid fork is the dane [drain] of the melting snows of the mountains, and that it is not as long as the middle fork and dose not at all seasons of the year supply any thing like as much water as the other and that about this season it rises to it's greatest hight. this last appears from the apparent bed of the river which is now overflown and the water in many pases spreads through old channels which have their bottoms covered with grass that has grown this season and is such as appears on the parts of the bottom not innundated.  we therefore determined that the middle fork was that which ought of right to bear the name we had given to the lower portion or River Jefferson and called the bold rapid an clear stream Wisdom, and the more mild and placid one which flows in from the S.E. Philanthrophy, in commemoration of two of those cardinal virtues, which have so eminently marked that deservedly selibrated character through life.

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August 10, 1805
William Clark

Some rain this morning at Sun rise and Cloudy  we proceeded on passed a remarkable Clift point on the Stard. Side about 150 feet high, this Clift the Indians Call the Beavers head, opposit at 300 yards is a low clift of 50 feet which is a Spur from the Mountain on the Lard. about 4 miles, the river verry Crooked, at 4 oClock a hard rain from the S W accompanied with hail Continued half an hour, all wet the men Sheltered themselves from the hail with bushes  We Encamped on the Stard Side near a Bluff, only one Deer killed to day, the one killed Jo Fields 3 Days past & hung up we made use of   river narrow, & Sholey but not rapid.

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We spent some time at this location studying the journal entries of Lewis and re-enacting the scene as transpired when Lewis, Shields, McNeal and Drouillard came upon a Shoshoni Indian on horseback.

August 11, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

We set out very early this morning, but the track which we had pursued last evening soon disappeared. I therefore resolved to proceed to the narrow pass on the creek about 10 miles West in hopes that I should again find the Indian road at the place, accordingly I passed the river which was about 12 yards wide and bared in several places entirely across by beaver dams and proceeded through the level plain directly to the pass.  I now sent Drewyer to keep near the creek to my right and Shields to my left, with orders to surch for the road which if they found they were to notify me by placing a hat in the muzzle of their gun.  I kept McNeal with me; after having marched in this order for about five miles I discovered an Indian on horse back about two miles distant coming down the plain towards us. with my glass I discovered from his dress that he was of a different nation from any that we had yet seen, and was satisfyed of his being a Sosone; his arms were a bow and quivere of arrows, and was mounted on an eligant horse without a saddle, and a small string which was attatched to the under jaw of the horse which answered as a bridle. I was overjoyed at the sight of this stranger and had no doubt of obtaining a friendly introduction to his nation provided I could get near enough to him to convince him of our being whitemen. I therefore proceeded towards him at my usual pace. when I had arrived within about a mile he mad[e] a halt which I did also and unloosing my blanket from my pack, I mad[e] him the signal of friendship known to the Indians of the Rocky mountains and those of the Missouri, which is by holding the mantle or robe in your hands at two corners and then th[r]owing [it] up in the air higher than the head bringing it to the earth as if in the act of spreading it, thus repeating three times.  this signal of the robe or skin for ther gests to set on when they are visited.   this signal had not the desired effect, he still kept his position and seemed to view Drewyer an[d] Shields who were now comiming in sight on either hand with an air of suspicion, I wold willingly have them halt but they were too far distant to hear me and I feared to make any signal to them least it should increase the suspicion in the mind of the Indian of our having some unfriendly design upon him.  I therefore haistened to take out of my sack some b[e]ads a looking glas and a few trinkets which I had brought with me for this purpose and leaving my gun and pouch with McNeal advanced unarmed towards him. he remained in the same stedfast poisture untill I arrived in about 200 paces of him when he turn[ed] his ho[r]se about and began to move off slowly from me; I now called to him in as loud a voice as I could command repeating the word tab-ba-bone, which in their language signifyes white-man. [Some say it meant "alien" or "stranger", others that it had no meaning in Shoshone. Yet, others say that Lewis intended to say Ti-yo-bo-nin, meaning "I'm a white man! See!". Another interpretation of Tab-ba-bone is "look at the sun," explaining why the man kept looking over his shoulder.]  but l[o]oking over his sholder he still kept his eye on Drewyer and Sheilds who wer still advancing neither of them haveing segacity enough to recollect the impropriety of advancing when they saw me thus in parley with the Indian. I now made a signal to these men to halt, Drewyer obeyed but Shields who afterwards told me that he did not obse[r]ve the signal still kept on the Indian halted again and turned his hor[s]e about as if to wait for me, and I beleive he would have remained untill I came up whith him had it not been for Shields who still pressed forward. whe[n] I arrived within about 150 paces I again repepeated the word tab-ba-bone and held up the trinkits in my hands and striped up my shirt sleve to give him an opportunity of seeing the colour of my skin and advanced leasure[ly] towards him but he did not remain untill I got nearer than about 100 paces when he suddonly turned his ho[r]se about, gave him the whip leaped the creek and disapeared in the willow brush in an instant and with him vanished all my hopes of obtaining horses for the preasent. I now felt quite as much mortification and disappointment as I had pleasure and expectation at the first sight of this indian. I fe[l]t soarly chargrined at the conduct of the men particularly Sheilds to whom I principally attributed this failure in obtaining an introduction to the natives. I now called the men to me and could not forbare abraiding them a little for their want of attention and imprudence on this occasion.  they had neglected to bring my spye-glass which in haist I had droped in the plain with the blanket where I made the signal before mentioned.   I sent Drewyer and Shields back to surche it, they soon found it and rejoined me.  

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Moved on from the Beaverhead Rock area and arrived in Dillon, MT around 3:00 PM.  We stopped at this location to replenish our supplies (Bushmill), partake of lunch, discuss the travels of the Corp of Discovery and visit the local historical gallery.  I had the great opportunity to renew the friendship of Dick Clarke of Yellowstone fame.  Having traveled the Two Oceans Pass area with him on three occasions while studying the travels of the fur trappers.  Learned that Pepper the horse my wife had been riding on our last outing had died by being struck by lightening.  

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Clark's Rock
N. 45o 14' 064"
W. 112o 38' 005"
Elevation: 5168 feet

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August 13, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

This morning Capt Clark set out early having previously dispatched some hunters ahead. it was cool and cloudy all the forepart of the day. at 8 A.M. they had a slight rain. they passed a number of shoals over which they were obliged to grag canoes; the men in the water 3/4ths of the day, the passed a bold runing stream 7 yds wide on the Lard. side just below a high point of Limestone rocks. this stream we call McNeal's Creek after Hugh McNeal on of our party [Blacktail Deer Creek which reaches the Beaverhead at Dillon, Montana]. this creek heads in the Mountains to the East and forms a handsome valley for some miles between the mountains. from the top of this limestone Clift above the creek The beaver's head boar N 24oE. 12 Ms. the course of Wisdom river [Big Hole River] or that which the opening of it's valley makes through the mounains is N. 25 W. to the gap through which Jefferson's river enters the mountains above is S 18o W 10M. they killed one deer only today. saw a number of Otter some beaver Antelopes ducks gees and Crains. they caught a number of fine trout as they have every day since I left them. they encamped on Lrd. in a smooth level prarie near a few cottonwood trees, [A few miles southwest of Dillon, in Beaverhead County, and north of where Montana Highway 41 crosses the Beaverhead and joins Interstate Highway 15.] but were obliged to make use of the dry willow brush for fuel.--

It would appear that this passage of Lewis' was written after the fact since he was on Lemhi Pass a fair piece ahead of Clark and his party.

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August 13, 1805
William Clark

a verry Cool morning the Thermometer Stood at 52 a o all the fore part of the day. Cloudy at 8 oClock a mist of rain we proceeded on passed inumerable Sholes obliged to haul the boat 3/4 of the Day over the Shole water. passed the mouth of a bold running Stream 7 yards wide on the Lard Side below a high Point of Limestone rocks on the Stard Side this Creek heads in the mountains to the easte and forms a Vallie between two mountains. Call this stream McNeal Creek From the top of this rock the--

Point of the Beaver had hill bears N. 24o E 12 ms.

The Course of the Wisdom river is-- N. 25o W.

The gap at the place the river passes thro' a mountain in advance is-- S. 18o W. 10 ms.

proceeded on and Encamped on the Lard side no wood except dry willows and them Small, one Deer killed to day. The river obliges the men to undergo great fatigue and labour in hauling the Canoes over the Sholes in the Cold water naked.

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August 13, 1805
John Ordway

Cloudy.  we Set out as usal and proceeded on. Several hunters to hunt.   passed a handsome Spring run [Probably Blacktail Deer Creek at Dillon. Lewis & Clark called it McNeal's Creek after Hugh McNeal] which came in on L. Side  the hills make nearer the River.  the valley not So wide as below & a little higher. Smooth plains covred with grass & Sun flowers &C. Saw Some pine timber on the high hills back from the River.  we halted and took breakfast at a high clift of rocks on L. Side  the hills above make near the River on the L. Side.   we proceeded on  the current rapid.  the plains continues on the L. Side and hills along the Stard. Side.  a fiew Scattering cotton trees along the River.   in the afternoon the current more gentle. we had caught a nomber of fine Trout this Several days  passed high clifts of rocks and fine Springs on S. Side  Saw a nomber of large otter diveing in the River before us. Saw bald eagles ducks &.C.   we took on board a deer the hunters had killed. Came 15 miles this day and camped on the Smooth prarie on L. Side   Capt Clark Shot a duck.  considerable of flax in these praries. Some of the party Saw Some of the Seed.  2 of the hunters have not joined us this evening.  the mountains appear near a head of us.--

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August 13, 1805
Patrick Gass

A cloudy morning. We set out early, through rapid water; the river being crooked and narrow, and passed a small creek on the south side. The Weather was cold during the whole of this day. We went 16 miles and encamped in a beautiful plain on the South side.

August 13, 1805
Joeseph Whitehouse

cloudy.   we Set out as usal & proceeded on.   Several hunters out a hunting.   passed a handsom Spring run [Blacktail Deer Creek, named McNeal's Creek after Hugh McNeal of the party, which reaches the Beaverhead River at Dillon.] on the L. Side.   the hills make a little nearer the River.    the valley not So wide & a little higher dry and Smoth.   Sun flowers & grass Some places high & other places Short.   Some pine timber back on the high hills.   we halted & took breakfast near a high clift of rocks on L. Side above which the hills make near the River.   proceeded on.   the current rapid   the plain continues on L. Side and hills on S. Side.   Some Scattering cotton trees along the River.  we have caught a nomber of Trout in this Stream.   in the afternoon we passed fine Springs & clifts of rocks on s. Side.   the current not So rapid in the afternoon Saw a nomber of large otter along the River.   Saw bald eagels [Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus] ducks & c.   took on board a Deer which the hunters killed.   Came 15 miles this day and Camped [A few miles southwest of Dillon] on the Smooth prarie on L. S.   Capt. Clark Shot a duck.   considerable of flax in these praries.   Some of the men Save Some of the Seed.   2 hunters did not join us this evening.--

August 13, 1805
Joeseph Whitehouse

This morning we had Cloudy weather, We set out Early, and proceeded on our Voyage, We sent several of our hunters out a hunting; We passed a handsome spring run, lying on the South side of the River; The hills make in nearer to the River, as we came along this day, & the Valleys are not so wide, the Valleys laying, higher, and are dryer, than they have been for several days past, & lay level, producing Sun flowers, high Grass &ca--   The Hills which lies a small distance back from the River, having some Pine timber growing on them.--   We halted & took break fast, near a high Clift of Rocks, lying on the South side of the River, <near to which lay a high Clift of rocks,> The current of the River running very rapid, the whole of the way, since we started this morning, and we passed by many very rapid places.   We proceeded on a 9 oClock A. M <we> & contined on our way, the current still continuing the same, the Plalins lying on the South side of the River, and some scattering Cotton wood trees growing along its banks; we caught a number of fine trout, by gigging them & with the hook & line--  In the afternoon we passed a fine spring, & high Clifts of rocks, which lay on the South side of the River; The current did not run so rapid, as it had done this morning, We saw a number of Bald eagles & Ducks the latter were in the River; We stopped and took in a deer, which our Hunters had left on the bank of the River, which they had killed.   We came 15 Miles this day, and encamped on a smooth priari, lying on the South side of the River, where Captain Clark shot a Duck, <in this Prairie> we found fine flax growing here.   2 of our hunters did not join us this evening.--

We proceeded on to the Pictographs or "Native American Rock Art"

"Native American Rock Art"
N. 45o 05' 017"
W. 111o 46' 627"

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During the course of our discussion of these "artifacts" there didn't appear to be much in the way of scholarly exchange as regards the authenticity, age, meaning nor origin of the markings.  Surely there is someone out there who might have acquired sufficient information on the 680 referred to Native American Rock Art works of Montana. 

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There seems little in the way of documented enlightenment from the Indian community as to the meaning of these "writings".  Have they no interest in their heritage or does the myths conceived by word of mouth better suite their sense of propriety?  Why is this site so little valued that no effort appears to be expended to protect it from distruction?

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I left this site in puzzlement and bewilderment enroute to Camp Fortunate.

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The original "Camp Fortunate" is currently believed to be under water. That site is now believed to be somewhat to the right of this picture. The direction shown in this picture is generally northeast and the earthen dam can be seen in the center.

"Camp Fortunate"
N. 44o 59' 462"
W. 112o 52' 214"

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From the beginning of this days adventure for the Corp of Rediscovery we had missed the company of two of our group who had became misplaced. George Shannon had the same fate on more than one occasion, remarkably enough over this same ground.

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At "Camp Fortunate" the two wandering members of the group were reunited at this location.  They had became disoriented but were expert enough to proceed on to this location which they knew to be one of our destinations.

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Left Camp Fortunate and ascended to Lemhi Pass. 

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Lemhi Pass
N. 44o 58' 482"
W. 113o 26' 685"
Elevation: 7406 feet

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At this location we came across an acquaintence of our "Captain".  This gentleman was currently employed by the U.S.Forest Service to greet adventurers seeking information regarding the Corp of Discovery.  He claimed to be John Potts of the Corp of Discovery.  He stated he was a retired educator.   Being one myself I understand why he's out here all alone standing on a mountain in the dress of early America.

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August 12, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

This morning I sent Drewyer out as soon as it was light, to try and discover what rout the Indians had taken.   he followed the track of the horse we had pursued yesterday to the mountain wher it had ascended, and returned to me in about an hour and a half. I now determined to pursue the base of the mountains which form this cove to the S. W. in the expectation of finding some Indian road which lead over the Mountains, accordingly I sent Drewyer to my right and Shields to my left with orders to look out for a road or the fresh tracks of horses either of which we should first meet with I had determined to pursue.  at the distance of about 4 miles we passed 4 small rivulets near each other on which we say som resent bowers or small conic lodges formed with willow brush.   near them the indians had geathered a number of roots from the manner in which they had toarn up the ground; but I could not discover the root which they seemed to be in surch of. I [saw] several large hawks that were nearly black.  near this place we fell in with a large and plain Indian road which came into the cove from the N. E. and led along the foot of the mountains to the S. W. oliquely approaching the main stream which we had left yesterday.   this road we now pursued to the S. W. at 5 miles   it passed a stout stream  which is a principal fork of the man stream and falls into it just above the narrow pass between the two clifts before mentioned and which we now saw below us. here we halted and breakfasted on the last of our venison, having yet a small peice of pork in reseve. after eating we continued our rout through the low bottom of the main stream along the foot of the mountains on our right the valley for 5 mes. further in a S. W. direction was from 2 to 3 miles wide the main stream  now after discarding two stream on the left in this valley turns abruptly to the West through a narrow bottom betwen the mountains. the road was still plain, I therefore did not dispair of shortly finding a passage over the mountains and of taisting the waters of the great Columbia this evening.  at the distance of 4 miles further the road took us to the most distant fountain of the waters of the Mighty Missouri in surch of which we have spent so many toilsome days and wristless nights. thus far I had accomplished one of those great objects on which my mind has been unalterably fixed for many years, judge then of the pleasure I felt in allying my thirst with this pure and ice-cold water which issues from the base of a low mountain or hill of a gentle ascent for 1/2 a mile. the mountains are high on either hand leave this gap at the head of this rivulet through wich the road passes.  here I halted a few minutes and rested myself.   two miles below McNeal had exultingly stood with a foot on each side of this little rivulet and thanked his god that he had lived to bestride the mighty & heretofore deemed endless Missouri. after refreshing ourselves we proceeded on to the top of the dividing ridge from which I discovered immence ranges of high mountains still to the West of us with their tops partially covered with snow.  I now decended the mountain about 3/4 of a mile which I found much steeper than on the opposite side, to a handsome bold running Creek of cold Clear water. here I first tasted the water of the great Columbia river.   after a short halt of a few minutes we continued our march along the Indian road which lead us over steep hills and deep hollows to a spring on the side of a mountain where we found a sufficient quantity of dry willow brush for fuel, here we encamped for the night having traveled about 20 Miles. as we had killed nothing during the day we now boiled and eat the remainder of our pork, having yet a little flour and parched meal.   at the creek  on this side of the mountain I observed a species of deep perple currant  lower in its growth, the stem more branched and leaf doubly as large as that of the Missouri. the leaf is covered on it's under disk with a hairy pubersence. the fruit is of the ordinary size and shape of the currant and is supported in the usual manner, but is ascid & very inferior in point of flaver.--

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Straddling the headwaters of the Missouri and thanking my God I was able to join Hugh McNeal in this endeavor.  All who wanted supped on a shot of Bushmill.

We proceeded on the Columbian side of the continental divide and stopped a short distance down the western slope to drink from the "headwaters" of the "Columbian River".  Leaving this location in search of a campsite we halted to view the supposed spot where Lewis encountered the Shoshoni Indian Women.  At this time nothing but sagebrush to the uninformed eye.  Why were they there?

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Lewis Encounters Indian Women
N. 45o 00' 181"
W. 113o 37' 229"
Elevation: 5167 feet

August 13, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

We set out very early on the Indian road which still led us through an open broken country in a westerly direction. a deep valley appeared to our left at the base of a high range of mountains which extended from S.E. to N.W. [The Lemhi Range and the valley of the Lemhi River or Lewis's River] having their sides better clad with pine timber than we had been accustomed to see the mountains and their tops were also partially covered with snow. at the distance of five miles the road after leading us down a long decending valley for 2 Ms. brought us to a large creek about 10 yds. wide; [Possibly Pattee Creek]  this we passed and on rising the hill beyond it had a view of a handsome little valley to our left of about a mile in width through which from the appearance of timber I conjectured that a river passed.  ...we had proceeded about four miles through a wavy plain parallel to the valley or river bottom when at the distance of about a mile we saw two women, a man and some dogs on an eminence immediately before us. they appeared to vew us with attention and two of them after a few minutes set down as if to wait our arrival we continued our usual pace towards them.   when we had arrived within half a mile of them I directed the party to halt and leaving my pack and rifle I took the flag which I unfurled and avanced singly towards them the women soon disappeared behind the hill, the man continued untill I arrived within a hundred yards of him and then likewise absconded. tho' I frequently repeated the word tab-ba-bone sufficiently loud for him to have heard it. I now haistened to the top of the hill where they had stood but could see nothing of them. the dogs were less shye than their masters the dogs were less shye than their masters they came about me pretty close   I therefore thought of tying a handkerchief about one of their necks with some beads and other trinkets and then let them loose to surch their fugitive owners thinking by this means to convince them of our pacific disposition towards them but the dogs would not suffer me to take hold of them; they also soon disappeared. I now made a signal fror the men to come on, they joined me and we pursued the back tarck of these Indians which lead us along the same road which we had been traveling.   the road was dusty and appeared to have been much traveled lately both by men and horses. these praries are very poor the soil is of a light yellow clay, intermixed with small smooth gravel, and produces little else but prickly pears, and bearded grass about 3 inches high . the prickley are of three species that with a broad leaf common to the missouri; that of a globular form also common to the upper pa[r]t of the Missouri and more especially after it enters the Rocky Mountains, also a 3rd peculiar to this country.[The three species of cacti in this region are Plains Prickly Pear; Pink Pincushion Cactus, Coryphantha vivipara; and brittle, or little, prickly pear, Opuntia fragilis.] ...we had not continued our rout more than a mile when we were so fortunate as to meet with three female savages.  the short and steep ravines which we passed concealed us from each other untill we arrived within 30 paces.   a young woman immediately took to flight, an Elderly woman and a girl of about 12 years old remained.   I instantly laid by my gun and advanced towards them. they appeared much allarmed but saw that we were to near for them to escape by flight they therefore seated themselves on the ground, holding down their heads as if reconciled to die which the[y] expected no doubt would be their fate; I took the elderly woman by the hand and raised her up repeated the word tab-ba-bone and strip up my shirt sleve to sew her my skin; to prove to her the truth of the ascertion that I was a white man for my face and hads which have been constantly exposed to the sun were quite as dark as their own. they appeared instantly reconciled, and the men coming up I gave these women some beads a few mockerson awls some pewter looking-glasses and a little paint. I directed Drewyer to request the old woman to recall the young woman who had run off to some distance by this time fearing she might allarm the camp before we approached and might so exasperate the natives that they would perhaps attack us without enquiring who we were.  the old woman did as she was requested and the fugitive soon returned almost out of breath. I bestoed an equvolent portion of trinket on her with the others. I now painted their tawny cheeks with some vermillion which with this nation is emblematic of peace. after they had become composed I informed them by signs that I wished them to conduct us to their camp that we wer anxious to become acquainted with the chiefs and warriors of their nation. they readily obeyed and we set out, still pursuing the road down the river. we had marched about 2 miles when we met a party of about 60 warriors mounted on excellent horses who came in nearly full speed, when they arrived I advanced towards them with the flag leaving my gun with the party about 50 paces behid me.  the chief and two others who were a little in advance of the main body spoke to the women, and they informed them who we were and exultingly shewed the presents which had been given them these men then advanced and embraced me very affectionately in their way which is by puting their left arm over you wright sholder clasping your back, while they apply their left cheek to yours and frequently vociforate the word ah-hi-e, ah-hi-e  that is, I am much pleased, I am much rejoiced. bothe parties now advanced and we wer all carresed and besmeared with their grease and paint till I was heartily tired of the national hug. I now had the pipe lit and gave them smoke; they seated themselves in a circle around us and pulled of[f] their mockersons before they would receive or smoke the pipe. this is a custom among them as I afterwards learned indicative of a sacred obligation of sincerity in their profession of friendship given by the act of receiving and smoking the pipe of a stranger. or which is as much as to say that they wish they may always go bearfoot if they are not sincere; a pretty heavy penalty if they are to march throught the plains of their country. after smoking a few pipes with them I distributed some trifles among them, with which they seemed much pleased particularly with the blue beads and vermillion. I now informed the chief that the object of our visit was a friendly one, that after we should reach his camp I would undertake to explain to him fully those objects, who we wer, from whence we had come and wither we were going; that in the mean time I did not care how soon we were in motion, as the sun was very warm and no water at hand. they now put on their mockersons, and the principal chief Ca-me-ah-wait made a short speach to the warriors. I gave him the flag which I informed him was an emblem of peace among whitemen and now that it had been received by him it was to be respected a the bond of union between us. I desired him to march on, which did and we followed him; the dragoons moved on in squadron in our rear. after we had marched about a mile in this order he halted them ang gave a second harang; after which six or eight of the young men road forward to their encampment and no further regularity was observed in the order of march. I afterwards understood that the Indians we had first seen this morning had returned and allarmed the camp; these men had come out armed cap a pe [head to foot, referring to knights in full armor] for action expecting to meet with their enemies the Minnetares of Fort de Prarie whom they Call Pah-kees. they were armed with b[o]ws arrow and Shield except three whom I observed with small pieces such as the N. W. Company furnish the natives with which they had obtained from the Rocky Mountain Indians on the yellow stone river with whom they are at peace. on our arrival at their encampmen on the river in a handsome level and fertile bottom at the distance of 4 Ms. from where we had first met them they introduced us to a londge made of willow brush and an old leather lodge which had been prepared for our reception by the young men which the chief had dispatched for that purpose. Here we were seated on green boughs and the skins of Antelopes. one of the warriors then pulled up the grass in the center of the lodge forming a smal circle of about 2 feet in diameter   the chief next produced his pipe and native tobacco and began a long cerimony of the pipe when we were requested to take of[f] our mockersons, the Chief having previously taken off his as well as all the wariors present. this we complyed with; the Chief then lit his pipe at the fire kindled in this little magic circle, and standing on the oposite side of the circle uttered a speach of several minutes in length at the conclusion of which he pointed the stem to the four cardinal points of the heavens first begining at the East and ending with the North.   he now presented the pipe to me as if desirous that I should smoke, but when I reached my hand to receive it, he drew it back and repeated the same cremony three times, after which he pointed the stem first to the heavens then to the center of the magic circle smoked himself with three whifs and held the pipe untill I took as many as I thought proper; he then held it to each of the white persons and then gave it to be consumed by his warriors. this pipe was made of a dense simitransparent green stone very highly polished about 2 1/2 inches long and of an oval figure, the bowl being in the same direction with the stem. a small piece of birned clay is placed in the botom of the bowl to seperate the tobacco from the end of the stem and is of an irregularly rounded figure not fitting the tube purfectly close in order that the smoke may pass. this is the form of the pipe. their tobacco [Nicotiana quadrivalvis] is of the same kind of that used by the Minnetares Mandans and Ricares of the Missouri. the Shoshonees do not cultivate this plant, but obtain it from the Rocky mountain Indians and some of the bands of their own nation who live further south. I now explained to them the objects of our journey &c. all the women and children of the camp were shortly collected about the lodge to indulge themselves with looking at us, we being the first white persons they had ever seen. after the cerimony of the pipe was over I distributed the remainder of the small articles I had brought with me among the women and children. by this time it was late in the evening and we had not taisted any food since the evening before. the Chief informed us that they had nothing but berries to eat and gave us some cakes of serviceberries and Choke cherries which had been dryed in the sun; of these I mde a hearty meal, and then walked to the river, which I found about 40 yards wide very raid clear and about 3 feet deep. the banks low and abrupt as those of the upper part of the Missouri, and the bed formed of loose stones and gravel. Cameahwait informed me that this stream discharged itself into another doubly as large at the distance of half a days march which came from the S. W. [Salmon River] but he added on further enquiry that there was but little more timber below the junction of those rivers than I saw here, and that the river was confined between inacessable mountains, was very rapid and rocky insomuch that it was impossible for us to pass either by land or water down this river to the great lake where the white men lived as he had been informed. this was unwelcome information but I still hoped that this account had been exagerated with a view to detain us among them. as to timber I could discover not any that would anwer the purpose of constructing canoes...   these people had been attacked by the Minetares of Fort de prarie this spring and about 20 of them killed and taken prisoners. on this occasion they lost a great part of their horses and all their lodges except that which they had erected for our accomodation; they were now living in lodges of a conic figure made of willow brush. I still observe a great number of horses feeding in every direction around their camp and therefore entertain but little doubt but we shall be enable to furnish ourselves with an adiquate number to transport our stores even if we are compelled to travel by land over these mountains. on my return to my lodge an indian called me in to his bower and gave me a small morsel of the flesh of an antelope boiled, and a peice of a fresh salmon roasted; both which I eat with a very good relish. this was the first salmon I had seen and perfectly convinced me that we were on the waters of the Pacific Ocean. the course of this river is a little to the North of west as far as I can discover it; and is bounded on each side by a range of high Mountains. tho' those on the E. side are lowest and more distant from the river.-- [The Lemhi Range lay to the west and the Beaver head Mountains to the east.]

This evening the Indians entertained us with their dancing nearly all night. at 12 O'Ck. I grew sleepy and retired to rest leaving the men to amuse themselves with the Indians. I observe no essential difference between the music and manner of dancing among this nation and those of the Missouri. I was several times awoke in the course of the night by their yells but was too much fortiegued to be drprived of a tolerable sound night's repose.

The Corp of Rediscovery had divided upon reaching the bottom of the western side of Lemhi Pass in order that we might view the suspected area where Lewis encountered the women of the Shoshoni Band as depicted above.  The remainder went ahead to hunt for food (Pizza) and to locate a campsite for the evening.  With the aid of modern day cell phones we were able to contact the party upon completion of our mission.

August 18, 1805
Meriwether Lewis [Thirty-First Birthday]

This morning while Capt Clark was busily engaged in preparing for his rout, I exposed some articles to barter with the Indians for horses as I wished a few at this moment to releive the men who were going with Capt Clark from the labour of carrying their baggage and also one to keep here in order to pack the meat to camp which the hunters might kill.   I soon obtained three very good horses. for which I gave an uniform coat, a pair of legings, a few handkerchiefs, three knives and some other small articles the whole of which did not cost more than about 20$ in the U' States.   the Indians seemed quite as well pleased with their bargin as I was.  the men also purchased one for an old checked shirt a pair of old legings and a knife.  two of those I purchased Capt. C. took on with him.  at 10 A.M. Capt. Clark departed with his detatchment and all the Indians except 2 men and 2 women who remained with us.  Two of the inferior chiefs were a little displeased at not having received a present equivolent to that given the first  Chief.  to releive this difficulty Capt. Clark bestoed a couple of his old coats on them and I promised that if they wer active in assisting me over the mountains with horses that I would give them an additional present; this seemed perfectly to satisfy them and they all set out in a good humour.  Capt. Clark emcamped this evening near the narrow pass between the hill on Jefferson's river in the Shoshone Cove.   his hunters killed one deer which the party with the aid of the Indians readily consumed in the course of the evening.--   after there departure this morning I had all the stores ande baggage of every discription opened and aired.   and began the operation of forming the packages in proper parsels for the purpose of transporting them on horseback.  the rain in the evening compelled me to desist from my opertations.  I had the raw hides put in the water in order to cut them in throngs proper for lashing the packages and forming the necessary geer for pack horses, a business which I fortunately had not to learn on this occasion.  Drewyer killed one deer this evening.  a beaver was also caught by one of the party.  I had the net arranged and set this evening to catch some trout which we could see in great abundance at the bottom of the river.  This day I completed my thirty first year, and conceived that I had in all human probability now existed about half the period which I am to remain in this Sublunary world. I reflected that I had as yet done but little, very little, indeed, to further the hapiness of the human race, or to advance the information of the succeeding generation. I viewed with regret the many hours I have spent in indolence, and now soarly feel the want of that information which those hours would have given me had they been judiciously expended. but since they are past and cannot be recalled, I dash from me the gloomy thought, and resolved in future, to redouble my exertions and at least indeavour to promote those two primary objects of human existence, by giving them the aid of that portion of talents which nature and fortune have bestoed on me; or in future, to live for mankind, as I have heretofore lived for myself.--

August 26, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

This morning was excessively cold; there was ice on the vessels of water which stood exposed to the air nearly a quarter of an inch thick.  we collected our horses and set out at sunrise.  we soon arrived at the extreem source of the Missouri; here I halted a few minutes, the men drank of the water and consoled themselves with the idea of having at length arrived at this long wished for point.  from hence we proceeded to a fine spring on the side of the mountain where I had lain the evening before I first arrived at the Shoshone Camp.  here I halted to dine and graize our horses, there being fine green grass on that part of the hillside which was moistened by the water of the spring while the grass on the other parts was perfectly dry and parched with the sun. ...one of the women who had been assisting in the transportation of the baggage halted at a little run about a mile behind us, and sent on the two pack horses which she had been conducting by one of her female friends. I enquired of Cameahwait the cause of her detention, and was informed by him in an unconcerned manner that she had halted to bring fourth a child and would soon overtake us; in about an hour the woman arrived with her newborn babe and passed us on her way to the camp apparently as well as she ever was. It appears to me that the facility and ease with which the women of the aborigines of North America bring fourth their children is reather a gift of nature than depending as some have supposed on the habitude of carrying heavy burthens on their backs while in a state of pregnancy.  if pure and dry air, an elivated and cold country is unfavourable to childbirth, we might expect every difficult incident to that operation of nature in this part of the continent; again as the snake Indians possess an abundance of horses, their women are seldom compelled like those in other parts of the continent to carry burthens on their backs, yet they have their children with equal convenience, and it is a rare ocurrence for any of them to experience difficulty in childbirth.  I have been several times informed by those who were conversent with the fact, that the indian women who are pregnant by whitemen experience more difficulty in childbirth than when pregnant by an Indian. if this be true it would go far in suport of the opinion I have advanced.--

...after dinner we continued our rout towards the village.  on our near approach we were met by a number of young men on horseback.  Cameahwait requested that we would discharge our guns when we arrived in sight of the Village, accordingly when I arrived on an eminence above the village in the plain I drew up the party at open order in a single rank and gave them a runing fire discharging two rounds.  they appeared much gratifyed with this exhibition.  we then proceeded to the village or encampment of brush lodges 32 in number.  we were conducted to a large lodge which had been prepared for me in the center of their encampment which was situated in a beautifull level smooth and extensive bottom near the river about 3 miles abov the place I had first found them encamped. [See August 20, 1805.] here we arrived at 6 in the evening arranged our baggage near my tent and placed those of the men on either side of the baggage facing outwards.  I found Colter [John Colter] here who had just arrived with a letter from Capt. Clark in which Capt. C. had given me an account of his perigrination and the description of the river and country as before detailed [WC: advised the purchase of horses, and the pursute of a rout he ahd learned from his guid who had provised to pilot ous to a road to the North &c] from this view of the subject I found it a folly to think of attemp[t]ing to decend this river in canoes and therefore determined to commence the purchase of horses in the morning from the indians in order to carry into execution the design we had formed of passing the rocky Mountains.  I now informed Cameahwait of my intended expedition overland to the great rive which lay in the plains beyond the mountains and told him that I wished to purchase 20 horses of himself and his people to convey our baggage.  he observed that the Minnetares had stolen a great number of their horses this spring but hoped his people would spear me the number I wished.  I also asked a guide, he obwerved that he had no doubt but the old man who was with Capt. C. would accompany us if we wished him and that he was better informed of the country than any of them.  matters being thus far arranged I directed the fiddle to be played and the party danced very merily much to the amusement and gratification of the natives, though I must confess that the state of my own mind at this moment did not well accord with the prevailing mirth as I somewhat feared that the caprice of the indians might suddenly induce them to withhold their horses from us without which my hopes of prosicuting my voyage to advantage was lost; however I determined to keep the indians in a good humour if possible, and to loose no time in obtaining the necessary number of horses.   I directed the hunters to turn out early in the morning and indeavor to obtain some meat. I had nothing but a little parched corn to eat this evening.

This morning Capt. C. and party [This ends Lewis's entry. He does not make another entry until September 9, 1805.]

August 26, 1805
William Clark

a fine morning  Despatched three men a head to hunt, our horses missing  Sent out my guide and four men to hunt them, which detained me untill 9 oClock a.m. at which time I Set out and proceeded on by the way of the forks to the Indian Camps at the first were [The Indian camp at the fish weir, about five miles southeast of Salmon, ID. See August 21, 1805. Clark's party remained here until August 29.]    not one mouthfull to eate untill night as our hunters could kill nothing and I could See & catch no fish except a few Small ones. The Indians gave us 2 Sammon boiled which I gave to the men, one of my men Shot a Sammon in the river about Sunset those fish gave us a Supper.  all the Camp flocked about me untill I went to Sleep--   and I beleve if they had a Sufficency to eate themselves and any to Spare they would be liberal of it

I derected the men to mend their Mockessons to night and turn out in the morning early to hunt Deer fish birds &c. &c. Saw great numbers of the large Black grass hopper. [Possibly the Mormon Cricket, Anabrus simplex.] Some hars which were verry wild, but few Birds.  a number of ground Lizards; some fiew Pigions [The ground lizard is likely the Eastern Short-Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre, while the pigeons may be either the passenger pigeon, Ectopistes migratorious or the Band-Tailed Pigeon, Columba fasciata.]

August 26, 1805
John Ordway

a clear cold morning. the water in the Small vessells froze. we Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on with our big coats on and our fingers ackd with the Cold. we passed a nomber of large Springs and I drank at the head Spring of the Missourie ran South & walked across a ridge only about one mile and drank at the head Spring of the Columbian River running west.[Probably Trail Creek & Horseshoe Bend Creek]  then went up and down a nomber of high hills passed a nomber of large Springs all makeing west. Saw pitch pine and balsom fer [Probably Lodgepole Pine, Pinus contorta & Grand Fir, Abies grandis] which grow verry tall on the Spring runs and Sides of the mountains, but they are mostly covered with Short grass.  Saw considerable of Snow on the mountain near us which appear but little higher than we are. it lies in heaps and a cold breeze always comes from these mountains  we came in Site of the valley where the Small river runs.  came about 8 miles & halted to dine   one of our Indian women was taken Sick rideing a long and halted a fiew minutes and had hir child with out detaining us. we gave the savages a little corn and proceeded on  passed over Several hills and a large Spring run  came in Site of the Indian lodges which were on the little River running west.  by the request of the chief which was with us we fired 2 rounds and went to their lodges.  they had a laarge one pepared for us in the center.  they have about 30 lodges consisting of men women and children.   they have but little to eat  they catch a large kind of fish in this little Stream.  a large Smooth bottoms on this R. back of the bottoms high hills & mountains. Som pitch pine on them.  we Camped near the lodge among the natives.   we danced a while this evening. they assembled to see us they all appear verry peaceable and friendly. we came here a little before night.  found Colter here who had been with Capt. Clark a long distance down this River.  he tells us that it is not navigable.  no game and verry mountaineous. Capt. Clark Send Capt. Lewis a note and Says he will meet us here & determine whether we follow the River or go across by land to the wtn. ocean

August 26, 1805
Patrick Gass

We had again a pleasant morning; and four hunters went on early ahead, and one man to look for horses. We breakfasted on the beaver and salmon, which had been saved from supper the preceding evening. The man, who had gone for the horses, having returned without finding them, 4 or 5 more went out, and our guide immediately found them. We then about 10 o'clock, proceeded on to the forks, where we found our hunters; but they had killed nothing. so we went up to a small village of the natives, got some fish from them, and lodged there all night.

August 26, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a clear morning   we find it verry cold and frosty every morning.    the water froze a little in the Small vessells.   we Set out at Sunrise and proceeded on.   the mountains make close to the branch on each Side which are partly covd. with pich pine.  passed a nomber of fine large Springs and drank at the head Spring of the Missourie and crossed a high ridge only one mile and drank at the head Spring of Calumbian River running west. [The sources of Trail Creek, which joins the Missouri, and Horseshoe Bend Creek, whose waters empty into the Columbia by way of the Lemhi, Salmon, and Snake rivers.]   the runs all make the Same course   Saw a high mountain to the S. W. with Some Spots of Snow on them.    Saw Spots of pitch pine and bolsom fer [Lodgepole pine, Pinus Contorta latifolia and Grand fir, Abies grandis] on the Sides of the Mo. and on the Spring runs, and verry tall.  we halted to dine at a Spring within about 8 miles of the Indians Camp which is on the Small River.  one of our Indian women was taken Sick a little back of this and halted a fiew minutes on the road and had hir child and went on without Detaining us.  we then proceeded on after we dined and gave the Indians who were with us a little corn.   passed over Several hills.   when we came near the natives lodges we fired 2 rounds by the requst of the chief then went to their lodges.   they had a large one in the center prepared for us, wher we unloaded and Camped with them. [This camp was likely located about four miles north of Tendoy near where Kenney Creek joins the Lemhi River.]  their is about 30 lodges here consisting of men women and children, but the nomber of persons would be difficult to find out.   we danced a little this evening.    the natives assembled to see us.   they all appeared verry friendly and peaceable.

August 26, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

We had a Clear morning; but very cold & a heavy frost, and the Water froze in a short time in the small Vessells, We proceeded on our way at Sun rise, & found the Mountains running in close to the branch of the River, on both sides of it & <are> were partly covered with pitch pine.  We passed a number of fine large Springs.--  We stopped at a very large Spring & drank out of it.  This spring is the head wates or source of the Mesouri River and lies under a ridge of high mountain's & is 3,124 Miles from the Mouth of the Mesouri River   We crossed this high ridge of mountain's and proceeded on about One Mile, and came to another large Spring, which <is> we supposed to be the head Waters or Source of the Columbia River, it running  West course, our party also drank water out of this Spring, so that we might all have it in our power to say; that we had drank water from out the head Springs or Source of both those great Rivers.--  We passed several runs of water, which all run a West course, and saw very high mountains lying to the South west of us, which had some spots of snow on them & pitch pine & balsam fir trees growing on the sides of the hills, & on the spring runs.  Those Trees were very tall.--   We halted to dine at a spring within 8 Miles of where the Indian Camp lay, Which is on a small River which was 36 Yards wide & 3,134 from Mo. Mesouri, We proceeded on after dining, having givin the Indians that was with us, some Corn, We crossed several hills, and arrived near, to where the Natives had their lodges.  We fired 2 Rounds with our small Arms, by request of their Chiefs, who were with us.   We then proceeded on & came to where the Indian lodges lay.--  The Indians had prepared a large lodge for us, which lay in the Center of their lodges, here we unloaded our baggage, and deposited it.  The Indians had about 30 lodges here, which was occupied by Indian Men, women & Children, but their numbers we did not ascertain--   In the Evening our party had a Dance & the Natives all attended, they seemed pleased with our mode of dancing, and behaved very peacable & friendly to us.   they were called the So-so-nee, or Snake Indians.--

We camped at "High Red Cliff" also known as Tower Creek Campground  No longitude - latitude - elevation reading taken at this location.   Company was contented. Pizza was filling.  We retired for the evening.

Wednesday July 9, 2003
J. R. Fromm

Arose at 7:30 A.M. and proceeded on to the city of Salmon, ID to hire a guide for a journey down the Salmon River.  Drove in by pickup and trailer to a raft launching area and was given instruction on life vests and proper procedures in a raft.   Floated passed Shoup, ID and stopped at an old gold mine for a tour an educational demonstration on panning for gold.  We then moved into the processing mill for another demonstration-lecture.  Continued on north passed Panther Creek, had a fine lunch on a sand bar on the north side of the river at 1:00 P.M. and put out at 4:00 P.M. approximately 11 miles downstream from where we began our river journey.  All but three of the Corp of Rediscovery completed this endeavor.

August 23, 1805
William Clark

We Set out early   proceed on with great dificuelty as the rocks were So Sharp large and unsettled and the hill sides Steep that the horses could with the greatest risque and dificulty get on, no provisions as the 5 Sammons given us yesterday by the Indians were eaten last night, one goose killed this morning; at 4 miles we came to a place the horses Could not pass without going into the river, we passed one mile to a verry bad riffle the water Confined in a narrow Channel & beeting against the left Shore, as we have no parth further and the Mounts. jut So close as to preven the possibiley of horses proceeding down, I deturmined to delay the party here and with my guide and three men proceed on down to examine if the river continued bad or was practiable. I Set out with three men directing those left to hunt and fish until my return. I proceeded on Somtims in a Small wolf parth & at other times Climeing over the rocks for 12 miles to a large Creek on the right Side  above the mouth of this Creek for a Short distance is a narrow bottom & the first, below the place I left my partey, a road passes down this Creek which I understoode passed to the water of a River which run to Th North & was the ground of another nation, Some fresh Sign about this Creek of horse and Camps. I delayd 2 hours to fish, Cought Some Small fish on which we dined.

The River from the place I left my party to this Creek is almost one continued rapid, five verry Considerble rapids the passage of either with Canoes is entirely impossable, as the wate is Confined betwen hugh Rocks & the Current beeting from one against another for Some distance below &c. &c.  at one of those rapids the mountainss Close So Clost as to prevent a possibility of a portage with great labour in Cutting down the Side of the hill removeing large rocks &c. &c.  all the others may be passed by takeing every thing over Slipery rocks, and the Smaller ones Passed by letting down the Canoes empty with Cords, as running them would certainly be productive of the loss of Some Canoes, those dificuelties and necessary precautions would delay us an emince time in which provisions would be necessary.  (we hae but little and nothing to be precured in this quarter except Choke Cheres & red haws not an animal of any kind to be seen ande only the track of a Bear)  below this Creek the lofty Pine is thick in the bottom hill Sides on the mountains & up the runs.  The river has much the resemblance of that above bends Shorter and no passing, after a few miles between the river & the mountians & the Current So Strong that is dangerous crossing the river, and to proceed down it would renr it necessarey to Cross almost at every bend   This river is about 100 yards wide and can be forded but in a few places.   below my guide and maney other Indians tell me that the Mountains Close and is a perpendicular Clift on each Side, and Continues for a great distance and that the water runs with great violence from one rock to the other on each Side foaming & roreing thro rocks in every direction, So as to render the passage of any thing impossible.   those rapids which I had Seen he said was Small & trifleing in comparrison to the rocks & rapids below, at no great distance & The Hills or mountains were not like those I had Seen but like the Side of a tree Streight up.--  Those Mountains which I had passed were Steep Contain a white, a brown, & low down a Grey hard stone which would make fire, those Stone were of different Sises all Sharp and re continuly Slipping down, and in maney places one bed of those Stones inclined from the river bottom to the top of the mountains, The Torrents of water which come down aftr a rain carries with it emence numbers of those Stone into the river.  about 1/2 a mile below the last mentioned Creek another Creek falls in, my guide informed me that our rout was up this Creek by which rout we would Save a considerable bend of the river to the South.   we proceeded on a well beeten Indian parth up this Creak [Berry Creek?] about 6 miles and passed over a ridge 1 mile to the river in a Small vally through which we passed ande assended a Spur of the Mountain from which place my guide Shew me the river for about 20 miles lower & pointed out the dificulty we returned to the last Creek & camped about one hour after dark.

There my guide Shewed me a road from the N Which Came into the one I was in which he Said went to  large river which run to the north on which was a nation he called Tushapass, [The Flatheads; See September 4, 1805.] he made a map of it

August 24, 1805
William Clark

Set out verry early this morning on my return passed down the Creek [Berry] at the mouth marked my name on a pine Tree, proceed on to the bottom above the Creek & Brackfast on buries & delayed 1 hour, then proceed on up the river by the Same rout we decended to the place I left my party where we arrived at 4 oClock, (I Sliped & bruised my leg verry much on a rock)  the party had killed Several phesents and Cought a fiew Small fish on which they had Subsisted in my absence. also a heath hen, near the Size of a Small turkey.

I wrote a letter to Capt. Lewis informing him of the prospects before us and informtion recved of my guide which I thought favourable &c. & Stating two plans one of which for us to pursue &c. and despatched one man [John Colter] & horse and directed the party to get ready to march back, every man appeared disheartened from the prospects of the river, and nothing to eate, I Set out late and Camped 2 miles above, nothing to eate but Choke Cherries & red haws [Columbia Hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana, is the only species of native, red-fruited hawthorn west of the Continental Divide.] which act in different way So as to make us Sick, dew verry heavy, my beding wet  in passing around a rock the horses were obliged to go deep into the water.

The plan I stated to Capt. Lewis if he agrees with me we shall adopt is. to procure as many horses (one for each man) if possible and to hire my present guide who I sent on to him to interegate thro' the Intptr. and proceed on by land to Some navagable part of the Columbia River, or to the Ocean, depending on what provisions we can procure by the gun aded to the Small Stock we have on hand depending on our horses as the last resort.

a second plan to divide the party one part to attempt this deficuet river with what provisions we had, and the remaindr to pass by Land on hose back Depending on our gun &c for Provisions &c. and come together occasionally on the river.

a third to [send?] one party to attempt to pass the mountain by horses, & the other to return to the Missouri Collect provisions & go up Medison rivr> the 1s of which I would be most pleased with &c. [This third much modified version of the first was apparently prompted by the concern over the limited sources of food in the mountains. One party would have gone down the Bitterroot River toward the Lolo Trail while the other would have returned down the Missouri to the buffalo range near the Great Falls to "collect provisions" and then gone up the Sun (Medicine) River to seek a way to rejoin the others. They had not known of the Sun river route, which Lewis would follow on the return trip in 1806, until they discussed the geography of the region with the Shoshones. Having set this last plan down on paper, Clark apparently found it unacceptable, likely because of the cost in time and the wide separation of the two parties, and crossed it out. It does indicate Clark's soundness of judgement and understanding of the problems with they faced.]

I saw Several trees which would make Small Canoes and by putting 2 together would make a Siseable one, all below the last Indian Camp Several miles

Upon returning from the river we located our 3 companions and began our trek to Lost Trail Pass.

Lost Trail Pass
N. 45o 41' 623"
W. 113o 56' 917"
Elevation: 7034 feet

We descended the north side of Lost Trail Pass and camped at Indian Trees Campground.   Visited the Hot Springs and retired late after consuming our alloted gill of Bushmill, etc.

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Indian Trees Campground
N. 45o 45' 340"
W. 113o 57' 208"
Elevation: 5134 feet

Thursday July 10, 2003
J. R. Fromm

We gathered up our gear around 7:00 A.M. and proceeded on in a northerly direction to Tushepaw or Ross' Hole near Sula, ID. Here we had an extensive discussion regarding the Corp of Discoveries encounter at this location with the Flathead Indians.  Met the gentleman in the following photograph who had much to say about the history of this region - Ross' Hole.

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David Sterling Windsor

Ross' Hole
N. 45o 50' 812"
W. 113o 58' 382"
Elevation: 4449 feet

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This is believed to be the location where Charles M. Russell painted his picture of The Lewis & Clark Corp of Discovery meeting the Flathead Indians.

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Comparing the terrain at this location with the background mountains in Russell's painting one can see the outline of the hills in the foreground.   Russell did at snow capped mountains beyond those presented in this photograph.

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At this location we learned that presenting ones arms crossed with the index finger pointing up means "trading" to the "Flatheads" or "Salish".  It was near this location where communication and trading took place.  Because of the language barrier five individuals were required: Salish - Shoshoni - French - English.

Site of C.M.Russell Painting
Lewis & Clark Meeting the Flathead Indians
N. 45o 50' 899"
W. 113o 58' 816"

September 04, 1805
William Clark

a verry cold morning every thing wet and frosed, we detained untill 8 oClock to thaw the covering for the baggage &c. &c.  groun covered with Snow, we assended a mountain & took a Divideing ridge which we kept for Several Miles & fell on the head of a Creek which appeared to run the Course we wished to go, I was in front, & Saw Several of the Argalia or Ibex decending the mountain by verry Steep decent takeing the advantage of the oints and best places to the Creek, where our hunter killed a Deer which we made use of and prosued our Course down the Crek to the forks about 5 miles [The party likely ascended Saddle Mountain and came down into the valley between the forks of Camp Creek, MT.] where we met a part of the <Flat head> [Tushepau] nation of 33 Lodges about 80 men 400 Total and at least 500 horses, those people recved us friendly, threw white robes over our Sholders & Smoked in the pipes of peace, we Encamped [Now called Ross, or Ross's Hole, east of modern Sula and likely on Camp Creek near its entrance into the East Fork Bitterroot River.] with them & found them friendly but nothing but berries to eate a part of which they gave us, those are well dressed with Skin Shirts & robes, they Stout & light complected more So than Common for Indians, The Chiefs harangued untill late at night, Smoked our pipe and appeared Satisfied.  I was the first white man who ever wer on the waters of this river. [The Bitterroot River, which they at first called Flathead River but which is Clark's River on Atlas map 68. The party will reach East Fork Bitterroot River on September 6 and the Bitterroot itself the next day above the entrance of the West Fork.]

September 04, 1805
Patrick Gass

...We kept down the valley about 5 miles, and came to the Tussapa band of the Flathead nation of Indians, or a part of them. We found them encamped on the creek and we encamped with them.

September 04, 1805
John Ordway

...our guide and the young Indian who accompanied him eat the verry guts of the deer. Saw fresh Sign of Indians.  proceeded on down this valley   towards evening we arived at a large encampment of the flat head nation of Indians [Salish Indians] about 40 lodges and I Suppose about 30 persons, and they have between 4 or 5 hundred horses now feeding in the plains [Ross's Hole, near Sula] at our view and they look like tollarable good horess  the most of them.  they received us in a friendly manner.  when our officers went to their lodges they gave them each a white robe of dressed skins, and spread them over their Shoulders and put their arms around our necks instead of Shakeing hands as that is their way they appeared glad to See us.  they Smoaked with us, then gave us a pleanty such as they cad to eat, which was only Servis berrys and cheeries pounded and dryed in Small cakes. Some roots of different kinds.  our officers told them that we would Speak to them tomorrow and tell th[em] who we were and what our business is and where we are going &C.  these natives are well dressed, descent looking Indians. light complectioned. they are dressed in mo Sheep leather Deer & buffalow robes &C.   they have the most curious language of any we have Seen before. they talk as though they lisped or have a bur on their tongue. we Suppose that they are the welch Indians if their is any Such from the language. they have leather lodtes to leive in some other Skins among them.  they tell us that they or Some of them have Seen bearded men towards the ocean, but they cannot give us any accurate [account] of the ocean but we have 4 mountains to cross to go where they saw white men which was on a river as we suppose the Columbian River.  came [blank] miles to day and pitched our Camp [Possibly Camp Creek, Ross's Hole] near the creek on the right of the Indian Lodges.  considerable of large pitch pine timber in this valley   our hunter killed another Deer this evening.--

September 04, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

...Saw fresh Indian Sign. we Eat our deer. our Indian guide and the young Indian who accompanied him Eat the pauch and all the Small guts of the Deer.  we then proceeded on down the falley  towards evening we arived at a large Encampment of the flat head nation [The Flathead, or Salish Indians] which is a large band of the nation of about 40 lodges. they have between 4 and 500 well looking horses now feeding in this valley  or plain in our view.   they received us as friends and appeared to be glad to See us.  2 of our men who were a hunting came to their lodges first   the natives Spread a white robe over them and put their arms around their necks, as a great token of friendship.  then Smoaked with them.  when Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark ari[ved] they Spread white robes over their Shoulders and Smoaked with them.   our officers told them that they would speak with them tomorrow and tell them our business and where we are going &c.   the natives are light Complectioned decent looking people the most of them well cloathed with Mo. Sheep and other Skins. they have buffalow Robes leather lodges to live in, but have no meat at this time. but gave us abundance of their dryed fruit Such as Servis berrys cherries different kinds of roots all of which eat verry well.    they tell us that we can go in 6 days to where white traders come and that they have Seen bearded men who came [from] a river to the North of us 6 days march but we have 4 mountains to cross before we come on that River.  our hunters killed another Deer this evening.   Came [blank] miles to day and pitched our Camp [In Ross's Hole, possibly on Camp Creak near its entrance into the East Fork Bitterroot River.] on the plain near the Creek on the right of the Indians lodges.   conserable of large pitch pine in the valley.

September 04, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

...our hunters killed a Deer, & told us that he had seen fresh signs of Indians.  We eat our deer, & our Indian guide and a young Indian of the Snake nation that attended him, eat the paunch & small guts of it.  We proceeded on down the Valley towards evening, & arrived at a large encampment of the flat head nation of Indians, which were a large band of that nation, They had about 40 lodges, & had between four & five hundred horses feeding in the Valley or plain; which lay in our view.  These Indians received us as friends, & appeared to be glad to see us.  Two of our Men who hwere a hunting came to their lodges before we had arrived.  The Natives <had> sparead a white robe over them, and put their Arms around their necks, as a great token of friendship, then smoaked with them.  When Captains Lewis & Clark arrived they spread white Robes over their shoulders and smoaked with them also.  Our officers informed them, that they would speak to them tomorrow, and inform them our business & where we were going &ca.--

These Flatt head nation of Indians are a well made, handsome, light colloured sett of people, the most part of them were well cloathed.  Their cloathing were made out of mountain Sheep or Ibex skins & other kinds of Skins; all of which were dressed.   Their Lodges were made out of dressed buffalo hides, which they live in.  they had no meat among them at this time, They gave us abundance of dried fruit, (Serviceberries & cherries) & different kinds of roots, all of which eat very well.  They told us, that they can go in 6 days, to where the white traders come, & that they had seen bearded men, on a River to the North of us, & only 6 days march from this place,-- but said we have 4 mountians to cross before we come to them, which lies & is on a River, our Hunters killed one Deer this day, which they brought to our Camp.  We came about 10 Miles this day, & pitched our Camp near a Creek on the Plains, on the right of where the Indians lodges stood; and where a Valley, a small distance from us; grew a considerable quantity of large Pitch pine trees.--

September 05, 1805
William Clark

a Cloudy morning    we assembled the Chiefs & warriers and Spoke to them (with much dificuely as what we Said had to pass through Several languajes before it got into theirs, which is a gugling kind of languaje Spoken much thro the Throught) [The language, of the Salishan family, apparently led the captains to reconsider for a time an old legend. Sergeant John Ordway says, "we think perhaps that they are the welch Indians"]  we informed them who we were, where we Came from, where bound and for what purpose &c. &c. and requsted to purchase & exchange a fiew horses with them, in the Course of the day I purchased 11 horses & exchanged 7 for which we gave a fiew articles of merchendize.   those people possess ellegant horses.--  we made 4 Chiefs whome we gave meadels & a few Small articles with Tobacco; the women brought us a few berries & roots to eate and the Principal Chief a Dressed Brarow, [The Badger, Taxidea taxus.] otter & two Goat & antilope Skins

Those people wore their hair <as follows> the men Cewed with otter Skin on each Side falling over the Sholrs forward, the women loose promisquisly over ther Sholdrs & face long Shirts which Coms to the anckles & tied with a belt about their waste with a roabe over, the have but fiew ornaments and what they do were are Similar to the Snake Indians, They Call themselves Eoote-lash-Schute and consist of 450 Lodges in all and divided into Several bands on the heads of Columbia river & Missouri, Some low down the Columbia River

September 05, 1805
Patrick Gass

This was a fine morning with a great white frost. The Indian dogs are so hungry and ravenous, that they eat 4 or 5 pair of our mockasons last night. We remained here all day, and recruited our horses to 40 and 3 colts; and made 4 or 5 of this nation of Indian chiefs. They are a very friendly people; have plenty of robes and skins for covering, and a large stock of horses, some of which are very good; but they have nothing to eat but berries, roots and such articles of food. This band is on its way over to the Missouri or Yellowstone river to hunt buffaloe. They are the whitest Indians I ever saw.

September 05, 1805
John Ordway

a clear cool morning.  the Standing water froze a little.  the Indian dogs are so ravinous that they eat several pair of the mens Moccasons. a hard white frost this morning. Several men went out to hunt  our officers purchased Several horses of the antives after Counsiling with them.  they are a band of the Flat Head Nation   our officers made four chiefs gave them meddles 2 flags Some other Small presents and told them our business and that we were friends to all the red people &C. which they appeared verry friendly to us.  they have a great stock of horses but have no provision only roots and berrys, at this time but are on their way to the Meddison River or Missourie whire they can kill pleanty of buffalow. our officers bought 12 horses from them and gave a Small quantity of Marchandize for each horse.  our officers took down Some of their language found it verry troublesome Speaking to them as all they Say to them has it go through Six languages, [Communication would pass through Salishan, Shoshone (from a Shoshone boy among the Flatheads and Sacagawea), Hidatsa (Sacagawea and Charbonneau), French (Charbonneau and a French speaker in the party), and English] and hard to make them understand. these natives have the Stranges language of any we have ever yet seen. they appear to us as though they had an Impedement in their Speech or brogue on their tongue. we think perhaps that they are the welch Indians, &C. they are the likelyest and honestest we have seen and are verry friendly to us. they Swaped to us Some of their good horses and took our worn out horses, and appeared to wish to help us as much as lay in their power.  accommodated us with pack Saddles and chords by our giving them any Small article in return [towa]rds evening our hunters cam in  had kild 1 deer.

September 05, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

a clear cold morning.  the Standing water froze a little last night.  we hoisted our large flag this morning.  Several men went out a hunting.  about 10 oClock our officers held a Council with the flat head nation and told them nearly the Same as they told other nations, only told them that we wanted a fiew horses from them, and we would give them Some marchandize in return.  Gave 4 of their principal men meddles made them chiefs gave each of them a Shirt and a nomber of other articles also 2 flags &c.  then told them that we could not Stop long with them and that we were ready to purchase their horses, and that we could not talk with them as much as we wish, for all that we Say has to go through 6 languages [There were actually five languages: Salish (for the Flatheads), Shoshone, Hidatsa, French and English.] before it gits to them and it is hard to make them understand all that we Say.   these Savages has the Strangest language of any we have ever Seen. they appear to us to have an Empeddiment in their Speech or a brogue or bur on their tongue but they are the likelyest and honestst Savages we have ever yet Seen.  our officers lay out Some marchandize in different piles to trade with the natives for horses.  our officers bought twelve horses and gave a Small quantity of marchandize for each horse.  we Swapped 7 horses which were lame &c.  Gave Some Small articles to boot.  we bought 10 or a Dozen pack Saddles from the natives.  our hunters all came to Camp towards evening.   one of them had killed 2 young deer and one brarow.

September 05, 1805
Joseph Whitehouse

This morning was Clear & cold, the water that we had in our small Vessells froze during last night.  Our officers had our large flag hoisted at our camp this morning.--  several of our Men were sent out a hunting.--  About 10 oClock A. M our Officers held a Council with the flat head Indians.  they told them that they had come in Order to make peace between all the red people, who were at Warr with each other; & to instruct them in the way of Trade, and that they would open the Path from their Nation to the white people &ca  they also informed them that they wanted a few horses from them, for which they would give some Merchandise in return.  They gave 4 of the principal Indians Medals, & gave them Commissions as Chiefs.  they also gave each of them a Shirt, a number of small articles & 2 Flags.  they informed those Chiefs that we should not stay with them but a short time, & that we were ready to purchase some horses from them, and that they would give them some Merchandise fo them, and that they were sorry that they could not have as much talk with them as they wished to have, and that all that they told them, had to be Interpreted through six different languages, before either party understood, what was said, and then hard to make them understand what our officers said to them.--  These Indians language is the strangest that any of us ever heard.  they all appear to have impediments in their speeches, and pronounce their words with a kind of brogue or burr on their tongues.  These Indians were the handsomest & most likely Indians, that we have seen yet.--  They behave very kind to our party, and are very honest, not attempting to pilfer the most trifling article from us.--

Our Officers had laid out Merchandise in different piles, in order to trade with the natives for horses.  They purchases twelve horses from the Indians, for Merchandise, & exchanged 7 more horses that were lame with them, & gave them the difference in Goods.--  they also purchased some pack saddles from them.  Our hunters all came into our Camp towards evening having killed 2 young Deer and a Brarerow which they brought with them.--

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The road to the left will take the traveler over a Nez Perce trail to Elk City, Idaho.  This route will also take the adventurer to the headwaters of the Selway River.  Nearly twenty-five years ago myself and five other souls rafted approximately 60 miles of that river including a frothing run of Wolf Creek Rapids.   We portaged our belongings and ran it with empty six man rafts.

Leaving the Conner region at 11:30 A.M. with orders to be at "Traveller's Rest" at 1:30 P.M. we proceeded on to the small community of Darby, MT.  Here we visited a few antique shops, found some interesting pieces and partook of a large buffalo burger with bacon at a local establishment.

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We left Darby later than expected and was 40 minutes late for the "Traveller's Rest" Rendevous.  It helped having the Captain in our party so not much was said of our tardiness.  The following photographs scan the area known as "Traveller's Rest".  Lolo Creek passes from left to right and is located just beyond the meadow in the timber.

"Traveller's Rest"
N. 46o 44' 968"
W. 114o 05' 248"
Elevation: 3210 feet

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The Captains had discussed during their stay at Fort Clatsop the division of the Corp between Traveller's Rest and the junction of the Yellowstone River with the Missouri.   The purpose was to  explore still unknown regions of the Maria's, to recover canoes and goods stored in caches and to send runners ahead. 

The following summary of their plans is taken from the journal entries of both Lewis and Clark for July 1 & 2, 1806.  Lewis himself was to go with a small party, including the "2 Invaleeds", Goodrich and McNeal, by the most direct rout to the Great Falls of the Missouri; while three of his men remained here to prepare carriages and the other necessary equipment for transporting the canoes and baggage around the falls, Lewis with the remainder of the party was to make an exploring excursion up Marias River.   Clark was to conduct the remainder of the party to the head of Jefferson River, where the canoes had been left the preceding autumn.  With these Sergeant Ordway and nine men were to descend the river and join the men left by Lewis at the falls of the Missouri. Clark himself with the ten men remaining was to cross from Three Forks to the nearest point on the Yellowstone.  From this location Sergeant Pryor and two men were to travel with the horses by land to the Mandan, and thence to the British post on the Assiniboine with a letter to Hugh Heney, the trader, while Clark, York, Charbonneau, Sacajawea and her child, and five of the men were to descend the Yellowstone in a canoe.   At its mouth they were to await the arrival of Captain Lewis, who was to be joined at the mouth of Marias River by Ordway's party and the men left by Lewis at the falls.  The following important modifications occurred.    Lewis' projected exploration of Marias River was curtailed, partly because he found that stream did not extend as far to the northward as he had supposed and partly because hostile Indians compelled him to beat a retreat to the Missouri.  Clark with his detachment descended the Jefferson with Ordway's party before crossing over the Yellowstone and the plan for Pryor's party was defeated through the theft by the Crow Indians of all his horses.

The makeup of the various groups, as best we know, is as follows:

1.  Lewis and Party: July 3 - 13, 1806 - Lewis - Gass - Drouillard - J. Fields - R. Fields - Frazier - Goodrich - McNeal - Thompson - Werner - Seaman (dog) - 5 Indians.

2.  Ordway and Party: July 13 - 19, 1806 - Ordway - Collins - Colter - Cruzatte - Howard - LePage - Potts - Whitehouse - Willard - Wiser

3.  Lewis and Party: July 16 - 28, 1806 - Lewis - Drouillard - J. Fields - R. Fields

4.  Lewis and Party July 29 - August 12, 1806 - Lewis - Gass - Ordway - Drouillard - J. Fields - R. Fields - Frazier - Werner - Thompson - Goodrich - McNeal - Collins - Colter - Cruzette - Howard - Lepage - Potts - Whitehouse - Willard - Wiser - Seaman (dog)

5. Clark and Party: July 3 - 13, 1806 - Clark - Ordway - Pryor - Bratton - Charbonneau - Collins - Colter - Cruzatte - Gibson - Hall - Howard - Labische - Lepage - Potts - Shannon - Shields - Whitehouse - Willard - Windsor - Wiser - York - Sacagawea - Baptiste - About 50 horses

6.  Clark and Party July 13 - August 12, 1806 - Clark - Pryor - Bratton - Charbonneau - Gibson - Hall - Labische - Shannon - Shields - Windsor - York - Sacagawea - Babtiste - 49 horses - 1 colt

7.  Pryor and Party: July 19 - 23, 1806 - Pryor - Shannon - Wiser - Hall.   This group was dispatched by Clark to the Mandan Village but returned with a failed mission due to losing their horses.  The journals document 2 occasions when there was a division in the parties.  In both instances, Serg. Pryor was in charge of the detachments (See July 8, 1806.)

September 09, 1805
Meriwether Lewis

Set out at 7 A M. this morning and proceeded down the Flathead river leaving it on our left, the country in the valley of this river is generally a prarie and from five to 6 miles wide  ...at 12 we halted on a small branch which falls in to the river on the E. side, where we breakfasted on a scant proportion of meat which we had reserved from the nunt of yesterday added to three geese which one of our hunters killed this morning.   two of our hunters have arrived, one of them brought with him a redheaded woodpecker of the large kind common to the U States.[Red-Headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus or the Pileated Woodpecker, Dryocopus pileatus.]    this is the first of the kind I have seen since I left Illinois. just as we were seting out Drewyer arrived with two deer.  we continued our rout down the valley about 4 miles and crossed the river; it is hear a handsome stream about 100 yards wide and affords a considerable quantity of very clear water, the banks are low and it's bed entirely gravel.  the stream appears navigable, but from the circumstance of their being no sammon in it I believe that there must be a considerable fall in it below.   our guide could not inform us that it continues it's course along the mountains to the N. as far as he knew it and that not very distant from where we then were it formed a junction with a stream nearly as large as itself [The Bitterroot meets the Clark Fork, or Hellgate, River just west of Missoula, Montana.] which took it's rise in the mountains near the Missouri to the East of us and passed through an extensive valley generally open prarie which forms an excellent pass to the Missouri.  the point of the Missouri where this Indian pass intersects it, is about 30 miles above the gates of the rocky Mountains, [Near Helena, MT. The Hidatsas told them of this route, but they had not recognized its eastern approaches on the voyage up the Missouri.] or the place where the valley of the Missouri first widens into an extensive plain after entering the rockey Mountains. the guide informed us that a man might pass to the missouri from hence by that rout in four days we continued our rout down the W. side of the river about 5 miles further and encamped on a large creek which falls in on the West as our gude informes that we should leave the river at this place and the weather appearing settled and fair I determined to halt the next day rest our horses and take some scelestial Observations. we called this Creek Travellers rest. [Lewis and Clark's Travellers rest Creek is now Lolo Creek. The camp was where they remained until September 11, in the vicinity of modern Lolo, MT possibly 1 or 2 miles upstream from the Bitterroot River, on the south side of the creek. See Atlas map 69.] it is about 20 yards wide a fine bould clear runing stream the land through which we passed is but indifferent a could white gravley soil. we estimate our journey of this day at 19 M.

at the creek where we dined I took the Meridian Altd. of Sun's U.L. with Sextant fore obstn 98o 1' 30"

Latitude deduced from this Observation 46o 41' 38.9

September 09, 1805
William Clark

a fair morning   Set out early and proceeded on thro a plain as yesterday down the valley    Crossed a large Scattering Creek on which Cotton trees grew at 1 1/2 miles, a Small one at 10 miles, both from the right, the main river at 15 miles & Encamped on a large Creek from the left which we call Travelers rest Creek.   killed 4 deer & 4 Ducks & 3 prarie fowls. day fair Wind N. W.

[The "Scattering Creek" could be the numerous streams that come into the bitterroot River at this point, including Mill, North Sprong, and Burnt Fork creeks, and several dividing branches of the latter.]

Course Distance &c. Down Clark's river

Septr. 6th 1805

N. 30o W.   5 miles crossing the river [Ross' fork] & a Creek at 1 1/2 m. & thro a vallie to the top of a mountain Covered with pine
N. 80o W.   1 1/2 miles down a reveen & Steep hill Sides to the river [Ross' fork] at an old Encampment.  a creek left
West   1 1/2 miles down the Creek [River], bottoms narrow.
N. 35o W   2  miles down the <Creek> River which is 25 yards wide passed a run on each side.

Septr. 7th Satturday 1805

N. 40o W.   3 miles down the River aforesaid
N. 80o W.   3 miles down the River to a larke Creek on the left.  bottoms narrow.
N. 45o W.   4 down the river to a Creek [Tin Cup] on the left.   bottoms wider, hills on the right is bald, mountians on our left is high and the tops Covered with snow
North   4 miles to a [Rock] Creek which runs from the Snow toped mountins, passed one on the left at 1 miles & Several Small runs on the right, and left, on Drean
N. 25o E.   8  miles down the River, passed a large [Little Horse] Creek on the left at 2 miles  the Vallie thro which we passed about 2 miles wide, lands pore & Stoney  The foot of the Snow toped mountinas approach near the river on the left the river 50 yards wide Shallow & Stoney.  no fish to be Seen  2 Deer 2 crains & 2 Phesents killed to day.

September 8th Sunday

North   11 miles to a small run on the right Side, passed a large Creek at 1 miles one at 4 miles & a Small one at 8 miles, thro' a Call'd Horse Vally
N. 12o W   12  through the Said Vallie to a large Creek from the right divided into 4 diffierent Channels, Scattered Creek

September 9th Monday

N. 15o W.   15 miles Thro a open vallie to the River, leaveing the road to our right Crossed a Small Creek from the left at 9 miles, and the river which is 100 yards wide, & passed through a pine bottom after crossing <The Creek> Clarks River
N. 40o W.   2 miles passing thro' a pine bottom after crossing the river to a large road on the left of the river in an open Vallie
N. 10o W.   4  miles Through an open Valle to a large Creek from the left. Caled Travelers rest and Encamped the 9th & 10th

9th Septr. Contd.

North   12 Miles to the mouth of a lark fork [Hellgate] which Joins from the right and heads up near the Missouri Some distance below the 3 forks,  this River has extinsive Vallies and is a good rout to the Missouri which the Indians say may be traveled in 4 days and is a good rout.  The Vallie near the mouth of this fork is about 7 or 8 miles wide leavel & open, but little timber on this fork in Sight. See the Courses
[William Clark]


Moriah River

47o 29' 10 4/10" N.

Lower part of the falls is in Latd.

47o 8' 4 5/10" N.

upper part of the rapids latd. is

47o 3' 30" N.

Forks of Jefferson

43 30 43

Travelers rest

46 48 28

September 09, 1805
Patrick Gass

The morning was fair, but cool; and we continued our journey down the river. The soil of the valley is poor and gravelly; and the high snow-topped mountains are still in view on our left: Our course generally north a few degrees west. We halted at noon: on our way the hunters had killed 3 wild geese; so we have plenty of provisions at present. At 2 o'clock we again went forward, and crossed over the Flathead river, about 100 yards wide, and which we called Clarke's river; passed through a close timbered bottom of about two miles, and again came into beautiful plains. The timber on this bottom is pitch pine. We travelled 19 miles and encamped on a large creek, which comes in from the south. Our hunters this day killed 3 deer

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"Fort Fizzle"
N. 46o 44' 824"
W. 114o 10' 376"

This location played a minor part in the Nez Perce War of 1877.  Settlers hearing of the approach of the Nez Perce built a "Fort" at this location to defend the valley as they approached.  The Nez Perce simply road their horses around the "Fort" and continued on their flight towards The Big Hole.

Upon leaving this location the Corp of Rediscovery divided temporarily.  Most traveled to the Blackfoot River and set up camp approximately 10 miles above the community of "Mill Town - Bonner" while four of us plus the Captain spent time in Missoula visiting the Paxton paintings in the county courthouse.  A brochure describing the paintings and their occupants and significance was provided.  One such painting purportedly identifies "Sergeant John Colter who discovered Yellowstone Park in 1814".  Problem: John Colter was never a Sergeant and he had died on May 7, 1812".  Colter did travel through today's Yellowstone Park which is believed to have been during the years of 1807-1809.

Very near downtown Missoula we observed a Motel-Restaurant with a large painted mural in its window stating "Lewis & Clark Camped Here".  Near this location was a plaque on a stream bridge stating "Meriweather Lewis and Party Camped Here on July 4, 1806.  Neither Lewis nor Clark ever camped there on July 4, 1805 nor any other time and Lewis' first name was spelled incorrectly.

With the completion of our visitations we traversed the trail to the campsite on the Blackfoot River.  Here we discussed with great enthusiasm the events of the day and the events of the Corp of Discoveries days as they traveled much the same route.   Bedded down at 2:30 A.M.

Friday July 11, 2003
J. R. Fromm

We arose at 7:00 A.M., held a discussion on the coming events of the day and proceeded on at 8:00 A.M.  This day we are following Lewis's Party of nine men plus himself: Gass, Drouillard, J.Fields, R.Fields, Werner, Frazer, Thompson, McNeal and Goodrich.

July 03, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

All arrangements being now compleated for carrying into effect the several scheemes we had planed for execution on our return, we saddled our horses and set out I took leave of my worthy friend and companion Capt. Clark and the party that accompanyed him. I could not avoid feeling much concern on this occasion although I hoped this seperation was only momentary. ..These people now informed me that the road which they shewed me at no great distance from ur Camp would lead us up the East branch of Clark's river and a river they called Cokahlarishkit or the river of the road to buffaloe [Blackfoot River] and thence to medicine river and the falls of the Missouri where we wished to go.   they (Indians) alledged that as the road was a well beaten track we could not now miss our way and as they were affraid of meeting with their enimies the Minnetares they could not think of continuing with us any longer, ... I directed the hunters to ... indeavour to kill some more meat for these people whom I was unwilling to leave without giving them a good supply of provision after their having been so obliging as to conduct us through those tremendious mountains. the musquetoes were so excessively troublesome this evening that we were obliged to kindle large fires for our horses these insects torture them in such manner untill they placed themselves in the smoke of the fires that I realy thought they would become frantic.

July 03, 1806
William Clark

Set out with ... (50) horses. ... makeing a total of 36 miles today. ... one man Jo: Potts very unwell this evening owing to rideing a hard trotting horse; I give him a pill of Opiom which soon relev[d] him.

July 03, 1806
John Ordway

we got up our horses and boath parties Set out about one time. Capts. Lewis & Clark parted here with their parties & proceed. on   I with Capt. Clark up the flat head River. [Clark's party headed south up the Bitterroot River.]   we kept up the west Side as it is too high at this time to cross.   we are now on our way to the head of the Missourie.   we wrode fast & Crossed a number of large creeks in which is beaver dams &C.   about noon we halted to dine at a branch [Possibly Kootenai Creek] and bottom of fine feed white clover [Possibly longsalk clover, Trifolium longipes, which Lewis noticed on July 2, 1806] &C.   proceeded on   the plains partyly covd. with pitch pine timber. saw a number of deer.   in the evening we Camped [On Blodgett Creek about three miles north of Hamilton.] at a bottom having made 35 miles in 10 hours this day.   one of the hunters killed a deer this evening.

July 03, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had again a fine morning; collected our horses and set out. Captain Lewis and his party went down Clarke's river, and Captain Clarke with the rest of the party went up it. All the natives accompanied Captain Lewis. We proceeded on down Clarke's river about 12 miles, when we came to the forks; and made three rafts to carry ourselves and baggage over. The river here is about 150 yards wide, and very beautiful. We had to make three trips with our rafts, and in the evening got all over safe; when we moved on up the north branch, which is our way over the falls of the Missouri, and after travelling a mile and an half encamped for the night. Two hunters went out and killed three deer. The musketoes are worse here than I have known them at any place, since we left the old Maha village on the Missouri. This north branch of the river is called by the natives Isquet-co-qual-la, which means, the road to the buffaloe.

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Lewis had named this creek "Seaman Creek" in honor of his Newfoundland dog.  In the translation of the journals the name Seaman was translated to Scannon and thus the descrepancy made by some historians.

"Seaman Creek" Present "Monture Creek"
N. 47o 02' 442"
W. 113o 13' 135"

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July 07, 1806
Patrick Gass

We had a wet night, and a cloudy morning. Continued our journey early along the valley, which is very beautiful with a great deal of clover in its plains. Having gone about five miles, we crossed the main branch of the river, which comes in from the north; and up which the road goes about five miles futher and then takes over a hill towards the east. On the top of this hill there are two beautiful ponds, of about three acres in size. We passed over the ridge and struck a small stream, which we at first thought was of the head waters of the Missouri, but found it was not. Here we halted for dinner, and after staying three hours, proceeded on four miles up the branch, when we came to the dividing ridge between the waters of the Missouri and Columbia; passed over the ridge and came to a fine spring the waters of which run into the Missouri [From the headwaters of the Big Blackfoot River, Lewis went to the headwaters of the Medicine River]. We then kept down this stream or branch about a miile; then turned a north course along the side of the dividing ridge for eight miles, passing a number of small streams or branches, and at 9 o'clock at night encamped after coming thirty two miles [Reuben Field wounded a moose near camp the morning of the 7th., agitating Lewis's dog Seaman].

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Lewis & Clark Pass
N. 47o 08' 512"
W. 112o 25' 772"
Elevation: 6510 feet

There appears to be a discrepancy between the elevation indicated on the sign and that which I recorded with a Lowrance GPS.  Another member of the party recorded a discrepany as well however that finding was 6434 feet.  I suspect the 6434 reading is closer to the fact as there was a number 4 scratched into the zero to the right of the 6 on the sign.  Someone else had apparently had the same idea as ourselves.

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At this location a reading was made of the journal entry for July 27, 1806 when Lewis along with George Drouillard, Joseph Fields and Reuben Fields encountered the Blackfeet Indians much farther to the northeast of this location.  They had been in search of the headwaters of the Maria's River.

July 27, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

... J. Fields who was on post had carelessly laid his gun down behi[n]d him near where his brother was sleeping, one of the indians ... sliped behind him and took his gun and that of his brother unperceived by him, at the same instant two others advanced and seized the guns of Drewyer and myself. J. Fields seeing this turned about to look for his gun and saw the fellow just runing off with her and his brother's he called to his brother who instantly jumped up and pursued the indian with him whom they overtook at the distance of 50 or 60 paces from the camp s[e]ized their guns and rested them from him and R. Fields as he seized his gun stabed the indian to the heart with his knife the fellow ran about 15 steps and fell dead; of this I did not know untill afterwards, having recovered their guns they ran back instantly to the camp; Drewyer who was awake saw the indian take hold of his gun and instantly jumped up and s[e]ized her and rested her from him but the indian still retained his pouch, his jumping up and crying damn you let go my gun awakened me ... I then drew a pistol from my holster and terning myself about saw the indian making off with my gun I ran at him with my pistol and bid him lay down my gun which he was in the act of doing when the Fieldses returned and drew up their guns to shoot him which I forbid as he did not appear to be about to make any resistance or commit any offensive act, he droped the gun and walked slowly off, I picked her up instantly, Drewyer having about this time recovered his gun and pouch asked me if he might not kill the fellow which I also forbid as the indian did not appear to wish to kill us, as soon as they found us all in possession of our arms they ran and indeavored to drive off all the horses I now hollowed to the men and told them to fire on them if they attempted to drive off our horses, they accordingly pursued the main party who were dr[i]ving the horses up the river and I pursued the man who had taken my gun who with another was driving off a part of the horses which were to the left of the camp. ... being nearly out of breath I could pursue no further, I called to them as I had done several times before that I would shoot them if they did not give me my horse and raised my gun, one of them jumped behind and rock and spoke to the other who turned arround and stoped at the distance of 30 steps from em and I shot him through the belly, he fell to his knees and on his wright elbow from which position he partly raised himself up and fired at me, and turning himself about crawled in behind a rock which was a few feet from him. he overshot me, being bearheaded I felt the wind of his bullet very distinctly. ... we left one of our horses and took four of the best of those of the indian's; while the men were preparing the horses I put four sheilds and two bows and quivers of arrows which had been left on the fire, with sundry other articles; ... I also retook the flagg but left the medal about the neck of the dead man that they might be informed who we were. we took some of their buffaloe meat and set out ascending the bluffs by the same rout we had decended last evening leaving the ballance of nine of their horses which we did not want. ... no time was therefore to be lost and we pushed our horses as hard as they would bear ... we passed a large branch ... which I called battle river. ...we arrived at rose river about 5 miles above where we had passed it as we went out, having traveled by my estimate compared with our former distances and cou[r]ses about 63 ms. ... after refreshing ourselves we again set out by moonlight and traveled leasurely, heavy thunderclouds lowered arround us on every quarter but that from which the moon gave us light. we continued to pass immence herds of buffaloe all night as we had done in the latter part of the day. we traveled untill 2 OCk in the morning having come by my estimate after dark about 20 ms. ... my indian horse carried me very well in short much better than my own would have done and leaves me with but little reason to complain of the robery.

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August 11, 1806
Meriwether Lewis

...I was in the act of firing on the Elk a second time when a ball struck my left thye about an inch below my hip joint, missing the bone it passed through the left thye and cut the thickness of the bullet across the hinder part of the right thye; the stroke was very severe; I instantly supposed that Cruzatte had shot me in mistake for an Elk as I was dressed in brown leather and he cannot see very well; under this impression I called out to him damn you, you have shot me, and looked towards the place from whence the ball had come, seeing nothing I called Cruzatte several times as loud as I could but received no answer; I was now preswaded that it was an indian that had shot me as the report of the gun did not appear to be more than 40 paces from me and Cruzatte appeared to be out of hearing of me; in this situation not knowing how many indians there might be concealed in the bushes I thought best to make good my retreat to the perogue, calling out as I ran for the first hundred paces as loud as I could to Cruzatte to retreat that there were indians hoping to allarm him in time to make his escape also; I still retained the charge in my gun which I was about to discharge at the moment the ball struck me. when I arrived in sight of the perogue I called the men to their arms to which they flew in an instant, I told them that I was wounded but I hoped not mortally, by an indian I beleived and directed them to follow me that I would return & give them battle and releive Cruzatte if possible who I feared had fallen into their hands; the men followed me as they were bid and I returned about a hundred paces when my wounds became so painfull and my thye so stiff that I could scarcely get on; ... I now got back to the perogue as well as I could and prepared my self with a pistol my rifle and air-gun being determined as a retreat was impracticable to sell my life as deerly as possible. in this state of anxiety and suspense I remained about 20 minutes ... Cruzatte seemed much allarmed and declared if he had shot me it was not his intention, that he had shot an Elk in the willows after he left or seperated from me. ... I do not beleive that the fellow did it intentionally but after finding that he had shot me was anxious to conceal his knowledge of having done so. the ball had lodged in my breeches which I knew to be the ball of the short rifles such as that he had, and there being no person out with me but him and no indians that we could discover I have no doubt in my own mind of his having shot me. ... the pain I experienced excited a high fever and I had a very uncomfortable night. at 4 P.M. we passed an encampment which had been evacuated this morning by Capt. Clark, here I found a note from Capt. C. informing me that he had left a letter for me at the entrance of the Yelow stone river, but that Sergt. Pryor who had passed that place since he left it had taken the letter; ... this I fear puts an end to our prospects of obtaining the Sioux Cheifs to accompany us as we have not now leasure to send and engage Mr. Heney on this service, ...

August 11, 1806
William Clark

here I found two men from the illinoies Jos. Dixon, and [blank space in MS.] Handcock those men are on a trapping expedition up the River Rochejhone. They inform me that they left the Illinois in the Summer 1804. ... The tetons robed him of the greater part of the goods and wounded this Dixon in the leg with a hard wad. ... Those men further informed me that they met the Boat and party we Sent down from Fort Mandan near the Kanzas river on board of which was a chief of the Ricaras, that he met the Yankton chiefs with Mr. Deurion, McClellen & Several other traders on their way down. that the Mandans and Menitarrais wer at war with the Ricaras and had killed two of the latter. the Assinniboins were also at war with the Mandans &c. and had prohibited the N W. traders from comeing to the Missouri to trade. ... Those dificulties if true will I fear be a bar to our expectations of having the Mandan Minetarra & Ricara chief to acompany us to the U. States. Tho we shall endeaver to bring about a peace between Mandans Mennetarres & Ricaras and provail on some of their Chiefs to accompany us to the U. States.

August 11, 1806
Patrick Gass

examined and dressed Captain Lewis's wound; and found the ball, which had lodged in his overalls.

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At the conclusion of this photograph all members traversed back down the western slope of Lewis & Clark Pass (A pass that William Clark never traversed) to our awaiting vehicles.  We agreed to meet in Lincoln, MT for lunch and to discuss our final departure.  Like many adventures I've been fortunate to be a part of, it is always difficult to leave those you've learned to admire and befriend.

See You On The Mountain,

J. R. (Jim) Fromm


The punctuation, spelling, syntax, incorrect words and otherwise poor use of words is as they were written in my notebook.