|Boiling Point: 5800K
Melting Point: 2400K
Electrons Energy Level: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Isotopes: 16 + None Stable
Heat of Vaporization: unknown
Heat of Fusion: unknown
Specific Heat: unknown
Atomic Radius: unknown
Ionic Radius: unknown
1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d10f14 6s2p62 7s2
Rutherfordium (named in honour of noted New Zealand nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford) was reportedly first synthesized in 1964. Workers of the Joint Nuclear Research Institute at Dubna (U.S.S.R.) bombarded plutonium, 242Pu, with accelerated 113 to 115 MeV 22Ne ions. By measuring fission tracks in a special glass with a microscope, they claimed detection of an isotope that decays by spontaneous fission. They reported this isotope to possibly be 260104 with a half-life of 0.3 +/- 0.1 seconds, produced by the following reaction:
22Ne + 242Pu 260104 + 4 1n
In 1969, Albert Ghiorso, Nurmia, Harris, K. A. Y. Eskola, and P. L. Eskola of the University of California at Berkeley reported they had positively identified two, and possibly three, isotopes of Element 104. The group also indicated that after repeated they had been unable to produce isotope 260104 reported by the Dubna groups in 1964. The discoveries at Berkeley were made by bombarding a target of 249Cf With 12C nuclei of 71 MeV, and 13C nuclei of 69 MeV. The combination of 12C with 249Cf followed by instant emission of four neutrons produced Element 257104. This isotope has a half-life of 4 to 5 s, decaying by emitting an alpha particle into 253No, with a half-life of 105 s. The same reaction, except with the emission of three neutrons, was thought to have produced 258104 with a half-life of about 1/100 s. Element 259104 is formed by the merging of a 13C nuclei with 249Cf, followed by emission of three neutrons. This isotope has a half-life of 3 to 4 s, and decays by emitting an alpha particle into 255No, which has a half-life of 185 seconds. Thousands of atoms of 257104 and 259104 have been detected. The Berkeley group believe their identification of 258104 was correct. As of January 1995 it was thought that eleven isotopes of Element 104 had been identified. The Berkeley group proposed for the new element the name Rutherfordium (symbol Rf), in honor of Ernest Rutherford, New Zealand physicist who is known as the "father" of nuclear physics.
This resulted in an element naming controversy; since the Soviets claimed that it was first detected in Dubna, dubnium (Db) was suggested, as was kurchatovium (symbol Ku) for element 104, in honor of Igor Vasilevich Kurchativ (1903 - 1960), late head of Soviet nuclear research. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted unnilquadium (symbol Unq) as a temporary, systematic element name, derived from the Latin names for digits 1, 0, and 4. However in 1997 they resolved the dispute and adopted the current name. (Element 105 was named Dubnium, instead.)
Rutherfordium, the first transactinide element, is expected to have chemical properties similar to those of hafnium. It would, for example, form a relatively volatile compound with chlorine (a tetrachloride). The Soviet scientists have performed experiments aimed at chemical identification, and have attempted to show that the 0.3 seconds activity is more volatile than that of the relatively nonvolatile actinide trichlorides. This experiment does not fulfill the test of chemically separating the new element from all others, but it provides important evidence for evaluation. New data, reportedly issued by Soviet scientists; have reduced the half-life of the isotope they worked with from 0.3 to 0.15 seconds.
This is a highly radioactive synthetic element whose most stable isotope is 265Rf with a half-life of approximately 13 hours.
This element therefore has no applications and little is known about it. Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element and it is predicted to have chemical properties similar to hafnium.
Only very small amounts of of element 104, Rutherfordium, have ever been made. The first samples were made through nuclear reactions involving fusion of an isotope of plutonium, 242Pu, with one of neon, 22Ne.