|Boiling Point: 4100°K, 3827°C, 6921°F
Melting Point: 2045°K, 1772°C, 3222°F
Electrons Energy Level: 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Isotopes: 32 + 5 Stable
Heat of Vaporization: 510 kJ/mol
Heat of Fusion: 19.6 kJ/mol
Density: 21.45 g/cm3 @ 300°K
Specific Heat: 0.13 J/g°K
Atomic Radius: 1.83Å
Ionic Radius: 0.625Å
Electronegativity: 2.28 (Pauling); 1.44 (Allrod Rochow)
Vapor Pressure: 0.0312 Pa @ 1772°C
1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d9 6s1
Naturally-occurring platinum and platinum-rich alloys have been known for a long time. Though the metal was used by pre-Columbian Native Americans, the first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558) as a description of a mysterious metal found in Central American mines between Darién (Panama) and Mexico ("up until now impossible to melt by any of the Spanish arts"). The word platinum comes from the Spanish word platina, meaning "little silver."
The alchemical symbol for platinum was made by joining the symbols of silver and gold.
Platinum was discussed by astronomer Antonio de Uloa and Don Jorge Juan y Santicilia (1713-1773), both appointed by King Philip V to join a geographical expedition in Peru that lasted from 1735 to 1745. Among other things, Ulloa observed the platina del pinto, the unworkable metal found with gold in New Granada (Colombia). British privateers intercepted Ulloa's ship on the return voyage. Though he was well-treated in England, and even made a member of the Royal Society he was prevented from publishing a reference to the unknown metal until 1748. Before that could happen Charles Wood independently isolated the element in 1741.
|Alchemical Symbols, Platinum|
When pure, the metal appears greyish-white and firm. The metal is corrosion-resistant. The catalytic properties of the six platinum family metals are outstanding. For this catalytic property, platinum is used in catalytic converters, incorporated in automobile exhaust systems, as well as tips of spark plugs.
Platinum's wear- and tarnish-resistance characteristics are well suited for making fine jewelry. Platinum is more precious than gold. The price of platinum changes along with its availability, but it normally costs slightly less than twice the price of gold. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king.
Platinum possesses high resistance to chemical attack, excellent high-temperature characteristics, and stable electrical properties. All these properties have been exploited for industrial applications. Platinum does not oxidize in air at any temperature, but can be corroded by cyanides, halogens, sulfur, and caustic alkalis. This metal is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but does dissolve in the mixture known as aqua regia (forming chloroplatinic acid). Common oxidation states of platinum include +2, and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species.
Platinum is an extremely rare metal, occurring as only 5 ppb in the Earth's crust.
Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and alloyed with iridium as platiniridium. The platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. The rare sulfide mineral cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S, contains platinum along with palladium and nickel. Cooperite occurs in the Merensky Reef within the Bushveld complex, Transvaal, South Africa. South Africa is the largest producer of platinum in the world.
Platinum, often accompanied by small amounts of other platinum family metals, occurs in alluvial placer deposits in the Witwatersrand of South Africa, Columbia, Ontario, the Ural Mountains, and in certain western Amercian states.
Platinum is produced commercially as a by-product of nickel ore processing in the Sudbury deposit. The huge quantities of nickel ore processed makes up for the fact that platinum is present as only 0.5 ppm in the ore.
Platinum is widely used as a catalyst. It will convert methyl alcohol vapors (CH4O) into formaldehyde (CH2O) on contact, glowing red hot in the process. This effect is used to make small hand warmers. Platinum is also used in a device called a catalytic converter, a device found in the exhaust systems of most cars. Catalytic converters combine carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned fuel from a car's exhaust with oxygen from the air, forming carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). Platinum is also used as a catalyst in the production of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and in the cracking of petroleum products. Fuel cells, devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water, also use platinum as a catalyst.
Rarity & Color
Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. "Platinum" credit cards have greater privileges than do "gold" ones. "Platinum awards" are the second highest possible, ranking above gold, silver and bronze, but below "diamond". For example, a musical album that has sold more than 1,000,000 copies, will be credited as "platinum." And some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white colour are identified as "platinum". Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. The frame of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, manufactured for her Coronation as Consort of King George VI, is made of platinum. It was the first British crown to be made of that metal.
World supply of platinum is around 7 million troy ounces (199,000 kg) per year. Platinum's cost fluctuates around USD $1100 per ounce ($35/g).
|Platinum Arsenide, Sperrylite PtAs2||Cooperite, (Pt,Pd,Ni)S|
|190Pt||189.959932||6.5 x 1011 years|
|According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts "may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat" and long-term exposure "may cause both respiratory and skin allergies."|
The current OSHA standard is 0.002 milligram per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift.
Certain platinum complexes (cis-platin) have been used in chemotherapy, as they have very good anti-tumor activity, particularly when used to combat testicular cancer, although they also cause cumulative, irreversible kidney damage, as well as deafness.
As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports), the possibility that platinum free radicals could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. However, the FDA has reviewed the issue as related to breast implants, and did not agree with a recent study that showed possible in vivo toxicity.
|Ionization Energy (eV): 9.0 eV
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 5×10-3 milligrams per kilogram
Estimated Oceanic Abundance: unknown